Dustin Borg, ME Patrick Henley, BME Ali Husain, BME Nick Stroeher, BME Advisor: Dr. Joel Barnett - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Dustin Borg, ME Patrick Henley, BME Ali Husain, BME Nick Stroeher, BME Advisor: Dr. Joel Barnett PowerPoint Presentation
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Dustin Borg, ME Patrick Henley, BME Ali Husain, BME Nick Stroeher, BME Advisor: Dr. Joel Barnett

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  1. Dustin Borg, ME Patrick Henley, BME Ali Husain, BME Nick Stroeher, BME Advisor: Dr. Joel Barnett

  2. Plasma is a state of matter with enough free charged particles so that its dynamics are heavily influenced by electromagnetic forces.  gaseous fluid-like mixture of ions, free electrons,radicals and excited atoms and molecules The Plasma Needle uses Low-Temperature Plasma (LTP)  small fraction of neutral particles in gas are ionized  electrons are high energy; ions are ambient temp.  retains neutral charge What is Plasma? http://solar.physics.montana.edu/martens/plasma/

  3. Problem • Plaque can build up in blood vessels leading to infarctions, stoppage in blood flow or possibly to heart attack • Subjects [with] cholesterol, were about two-and-a-half times more likely to have advanced plaque blockages in their coronary arteries • Heart disease is America's major killer • Severe blockage due to arterial plaque, a clot, a spasm, or any combination of these, may lead to a myocardial infarction, the dreaded heart attack, resulting in cardiac dysfunction and often rapid death http://www.ynhh.org/healthlink/cardiac/cardiac_9_00.html http://www.coconut-info.com/diet_and_disease.htm

  4. Possible Solution? Cholesterol builds underneath the endothelium tissue at early stages of arterial blockage Slowing – or possibly eliminating – the buildup of cholesterol beneath endothelium tissue can hypothetical lower the risk of arterial blockage http://www.2sourcesofcholesterol.com/2sourcesofcholesterol/images/your_cholesterol/artery_plaque.jpg

  5. Current Known Effects of Plasma on Cell Tissue Plasma Needle likely damages CAM proteins so that cholesterol is not able to bind to the endothelium cell wall as easily, therefore meaning less cholesterol builds in artery Destruction of CAM  proliferation of free radicals (O, OH); previous research shows that plasma does disperse free radicals in a localized area. Amount of free radicals at a specific point depends on the distance from the plasma The Development of a Smart-Scanning Probe for the Plasma Needle, Ewout van der Laan

  6. Project Goal • Design and Build a Working Plasma-catheter • Construct functioning basic plasma needle prototype • Design catheter • Build catheter design incorporating functioning plasma needle • Characterize plasma-catheter prototype • Refine design to suit surgical needs

  7. Requirements to Meet Goals • Flexibility: • Tungsten electrode • Bending catheter should not affect gas helium flow • Insulating material • Safety: • Minimal He flow • Possibly requiring a separating material between plasma discharge and biological tissue • No blood flowing into catheter and no bubbles going into bloodstream

  8. Our Progress So Far • Faculty Consultation • Welding Experts • High Frequency Electronics Technician • Cardiovascular Surgeon • Electrode Researcher • Design of Test Rig Prototype • Arranging for Experimental Setup • Commissioning of Glass Test Rig to Specifications • Arranging for Suitable Lab Space • Acquisition of Necessary Electronic Components • Acquisition of He Flow Equipment • Purchasing of Other Necessary Materials • Design of Catheter • Research into Operating Parameters • Brainstorm Potential Designs • Selection of Best Design

  9. Plasma Needle Operating Characteristics • RF Frequency = 13.56 MHz (universal) • P-P RF Voltage ~ 200 - 400 V • Power Level ~ 100 – 400 mW • Needle Resistance = 1.1 ohm • Needle Capacitance = 28.8 pF • Plasma Resistance = 2 ohms • (Plasma discharge purely resistive) • Helium Flow = 0.1L/min • Minimum Ignition Voltage = 250 V

  10. Plasma Needle Prototype Experimental Setup

  11. First Test Rig teflon coating glass 5 cm 2 mm RF tungsten Diameter of Tungsten Needle = 0.3mm Length = 5cm Material: Glass helium

  12. Hypodermic Needle Teflon Coating for Needle Glass Electrode's Teflon Coating Tungsten Electrode Revised Test Rig • Modifications: • Lengthened Input Opening • Enlarged Input Diameter 58 mm 25 mm 50 mm 35 mm 2 mm Needle coating Electrode Electrode coating HypodermicNeedle Shaft Length: 5 cm Outer Diameter: 4 mm Inner Diameter: 2 mm Electrode Diameter: .3 mm 4.3 mm Helium flow

  13. RF Detailed View of Electrode Input Teflon Needle Insulation Tungsten electrode 10 mm Teflon overlap 25 mm needle tip Stainless Steel Hypodermic needle Teflon Electrode Insulation

  14. Function Generator (Courtesy of our Dutch colleagues) • RF Signal: 13.56 MHz • Max Power Output: 10 W

  15. Variable Matchbox Z-11 QRP Automatic Antenna Tuner • Manufacturer: LDG Electronics Inc. • Size: 5.0 x 6.5 x 1.3” enclosure • Tunes 6-800 ohm loads • Tuning time: .1-3 sec • 1.8 – 30.0 MHz Coverage • Power range: .1-30 W

  16. Z-11 QRP Automatic Antenna Tuner • Config: Switched “L” network • Microprocessor Controlled • Inductor range: 20 uH • Capacitor range: 2700 pf

  17. Ramsey QRP Power Meter • Continuous measurement from 1µWatts to 50Watts • Allows measurement of both forward and reflected power http://www.ramseyelectronics.com/cgi-bin/commerce.exe?preadd=action&key=PM10DC

  18. Helium Source and Flow Meter • Helium on hand in EE Welding Lab • Flow meter is calibrated for really small flows • External needle valve possibly needed

  19. Costs

  20. Catheter Designs 5 cm 35 mm Flexible Catheter 20 mm 2 mm Electrode Electrode coating HypodermicNeedle Potential Internal Catheter Configurations 4.3 mm Helium flow (end view)

  21. Immediate Goals(through beginning of April) • Construction of plasma needle prototype • Assess need for external needle valve • Construct experimental setup in EE Welding Lab • Run simulation and make necessary modifications • Contact Coordinating Group • Clarify necessary parameters for plasma characterization • Confirm parameters for final catheter design for use in rabbit test subjects • Establish communication with researchers planning to conduct animal testing • Catheter Design Work • Continue discussions with local medical professionals • Meet with Vanderbilt Catheter Lab specialists • Construct catheter prototype • Conduct laboratory testing to characterize catheter

  22. Timeline Gas Plasma & Catheter Research December January February March April Research & Design of Catheter Construction of Functioning Plasma Needle Prototype Catheter Construction Physical Testing and Refinement of Plasma Catheter

  23. Our Dutch Counterparts Willem-Jan van Harskamp, Applied Physics Vivian Roode, BME Gijs Snieders, BME M. van Vlimmeren, BME Advisor: Dr. Eva Adamowicz

  24. Level of Development of Plasma Needle Technology Completed: • Evaluation of the electrical characteristics of the plasma needle • Sensing the gap width by monitoring the discharge power consumption • Adapted positioning sensor Current: • Design Plasma-Catheter Future: • Testing in animal blood vessels