Bellringer • What are three major changes that occurred because of the Industrial Revolution?
World History Fulton/Westerfield Chapter 13 Industrial Revolution Section 2 Notes
The Factory System: How Machines Affected Work • Steam powered machinery made work easier and a person could learn a task or operate a machine in a few days. • Employers began to hire women, children, and young men because they could operate machines as efficiently as men and did not expect high wages and were unskilled.
The Factory System: The Wage System • Unlike the domestic system ( meaning at home), each worker worked on only a small part of the job of making a product and under the watchful eye of supervisors. • Workers were paid based on the number of hours worked or the amount of goods produced.
The Wage System • Several factors determined a worker’s wage. • Wages set in relation to other costs of production • Number of workers available—surplus of workers brought wages down and a shortage of workers caused wages to rise • Wages depended on what people could expect to earn at other kinds of work • Wages were higher for men than women; women often were thought of as working to add a little income to their families when in reality many were the only wage earners in their families
The Lives of Factory Workers • Workers had many rules to follow. They had to be at work on time, could eat or take breaks only at certain times, could leave only with permission, and worked in in hot and cold conditions, day or night. • Breaking rules could result in fines, pay cuts, or job loss. • Factories were cold and damp places with poor sanitation. Accidents occurred frequently and no compensation was paid. Workers worked up to 14 hours a day six days a week.
The Lives of Factory Workers • There many abuses that took place in factories. Parliament passed the Factory Act of 1833 in response to news of horrific working conditions children had been forced to endure. • Workers lived in shabby apartment buildings called tenements. As many as a dozen people lived in a single room. • Over time conditions did improve slightly as consumer goods became cheaper and more available to workers. Wages did increase somewhat but the lower classes continued to suffer.
Development of the Middle Class • During the Industrial Revolution, the economic and political power shifted from agriculture to manufacturing. • A well-educated middle class grew and developed as the cities and industry grew. • This group of people consisted of bankers, manufacturers, merchants, lawyers, doctors, engineers, professors, and their families. • Many also served in management or other types of administrative jobs that ran industries.
Development of the Middle Class • Over time the middle class gained increasing social influence and political power. • To many the middle class represented a social stepladder. Each generation had hoped that the next one would rise up the social ladder than the one before it. • As the middle class expanded, many families were able to move up the economic ladder.
Development of the Middle Class • As the middle class saw their finances improve, their lifestyles began to reflect their rising social status. • Many middle class families could afford larger homes and could own property. Their children attended good schools and prepared for higher-level jobs. • The middle class influence caused government leaders to be concerned about the future of industry as well as agriculture.
Effect of Industrialization on Women’s Lives • The need for farm labor decreased due to improved farming methods and equipment which caused many women to take jobs in textile mills or factories. • Many young women continued to work at traditional women’s jobs—domestic service. • Because many middle class families had enough money that women did not have to work outside the home. They could stay home and take care of the house work.
Effect of Industrialization on Women’s Lives • For some women, a life outside of the home would have meant independence. • Near the end of the 19th century, certain jobs such as nurses, secretaries, and telephone operators opened up to women. • Higher education opened up to women and with more public schools many women became teachers. Most elementary school teachers were women by the late 1800s.