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BAR CODE TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATION TO LIBRARY SERVICES. I R N GOUDAR HEAD, ICAST NATIONAL AEROSPACE LABORATORIES BANGALORE-560017. BAR CODE TECHNOLOGY. It is an automatic identification technology Bar code is a predefined format of dark bars and white spaces

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Bar code technology and its application to library services l.jpg

BAR CODE TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATION TO LIBRARY SERVICES

I R N GOUDAR

HEAD, ICAST

NATIONAL AEROSPACE LABORATORIES

BANGALORE-560017


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BAR CODE TECHNOLOGY

  • It is an automatic identification technology

  • Bar code is a predefined format of dark bars and white spaces

  • Structured to contain a specific piece of information

  • It allows real-time data to be collected accurately and rapidly

  • Combination of barcode technology with computer and application software improves performance, productivity and profitability




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MANUAL METHODS

KEYBOARD OPERATION

1 ERROR/300 CHARACTERS

AUTOMATIC METHODS

OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION

MAGNETIC INK

MACHINE VISION

RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION

SMART CARDS

BAR CODE

DATA ENTRY TECHNIQUES


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BENEFITS OF BAR CODING

  • REPRESENT UNIQUE IDENTITY OF A PRODUCT

  • ACCURACY OF DATA INPUT (ERROR FREE)

  • AID EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF RESOURCES AND INVENTORIES

  • LABOUR SAVINGS BY AVOIDING MANUAL SYSTEM


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BENEFITS …

  • COST EFFICIENT

  • REAL TIME DATA COLLECTION

  • MEASUREMENT OF WORK IN PROGRESS THROUGHOUT THE FACTORY

  • RAPID ACCESS TO TOTAL PRODUCTION COSTS

  • MORE ACCURATE DESPATCH


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BAR CODE TERMINOLOGY

  • BAR

    - The darker, non reflective element of a Bar Code

    • BI-DIRECTIONAL SYMBOL

      - A Bar Code symbol format which permits reading in either direction across the bars and spaces

    • CHECK DIGIT

      - A calculated character included within the Bar Code for error detection

    • FIXED BEAM SCANNER

      - A stationary Bar Code Scanner. The symbol must be moved through the light beam to be read


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TERMINOLOGY …

  • HAND-HELD SCANNER

    • A scanner held and operated by a human operator

  • INTER-CHARACTER GAP

    • The space between the bars or spaces

  • MOVING BEAM SCANNER

    • A Bar Code scanner that uses a moving light beam to dynamically scan and decode a Bar Code symbol


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TERMINOLOGY …

  • SPACE

    • The lighter, reflective element of a Bar Code

  • START CHARACTER

    • A special pattern of bars and spaces used to identify the beginning of a Bar Code symbol

  • STOP CHARACTER

    • A special pattern of bars and spaces used to identify the end of a Bar Code symbol




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BAR CODE SCANNERS

  • A device used to extract information optically from a Bar Code

  • Bar Code symbol consists of series of vertical dark bars separated by light spaces

  • When illuminated reflected light is detected by electro optical sensor

  • The intensity of reflected light from the dark bars is less than that of spaces


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SCANNERS …

  • Reflected light is converted into electrical voltage signals

  • Analog voltages are digitized into raw data

  • The decoder converts this data into the character data representation of the symbol’s code


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TYPES OF SCANNERS (READERS)

  • CONTACT READERS

    • Must touch or come in close proximity of symbol

    • Good where the label cannot be placed in an easy-to-view position

    • Normally hand-held/stationary units

    • Common type is pen/wand reader

    • A high-density resolution wand used to read a low-density symbol might see an ink spot as bar or an ink void as a space


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CONTACT READERS

  • A low-resolution wand may not be able to recognise a narrow bar of high-density symbol

  • Positioned angle of wand to the surface and movement speed across the symbol are key parameters



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NON-CONTACT READERS

  • Reader need not come in contact with symbol

  • Scan distance may be from 6” to several feet depending upon symbol size and scanner design

  • Hand-held, fixed beam readers








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BAR CODE APPLICATIONS

  • INVENTORY CONTROL

    • Portable readers

  • WORK-IN PROCESS TRACKING (WIP) COMPANY INVENTORY

    • Raw materials

    • WIP (Components, Assemblies, Semi finished Products)

    • Finished Products


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APPLICATIONS …

  • SHIPPING

  • ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE (EDI)

    • Direct communication between computers of two companies (Manufacturer & Vendor)

    • Industry-wide EDI standards

    • Reduces cost and saves time of business transaction


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APPLICATIONS

  • RETAIL APPLICATIONS

    • Super markets

    • Counter-mounted Bar Code scanners

    • Universal Product Code (UPC)

    • Price and description information

  • WARE HOUSING

  • HEALTH CARE APPLICATIONS

    • Drugs, devices, instruments

    • Identification of expiry date

    • Blood banking

      • Blood group

      • Expiry date

      • Donor traceability



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BAR CODING IN LIBRARIES

  • EFFECTIVE LIBRARY NEEDS EACH DOCUMENT BAR CODED

  • TWO LABELS PREFERABLY

  • LABEL TO CONTAIN

    • Accession number equivalent Bar Code

    • Call number

    • Institution logo advantageous

  • ISBN BAR CODE COULD BE USED


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BARCODING IN LIBRARIES …

  • DATABASE PROGRAM LINKS THE BAR CODE TO BIBLIOGRAPHIC DETAILS OF DOCUMENTS

  • AUTHORISED ID CARD INCLUDES BAR CODE

    • Card could be used by library

    • Institutional ID card

    • Social security number

  • BAR CODE READER INTERFACED TO COMPUTER

  • TRACKING OF BOOKS


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INCORPORATING BAR CODE IN LIBRARIES

  • THE TYPICAL SEQUENCE WOULD BE

    • Database creation (OPAC)

    • Generate Bar Code for all transact able documents

    • Bar Code membership cards

    • Installation of suitable scanning equipment

    • Set different criteria for transactions


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ADVANTAGES OF BAR CODE IN LIBRARIES

  • Quick and error free entry of access and membership codes

  • Ensures total integrity of collected data

  • No queuing up at check out/check in counters

  • Avoids piling up of data entry work for counter staff

  • Aids generation of suitable reminders to delinquent borrowers

  • Stock verification made easy



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