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Strategisk Ledelse. 2. undervisningsgang – 3. september 2012. Lectures, Autumn 2012. Strategy and organizational change. Our focus is is ways of thinking about how organizations change over time How organizations have become what they are and how they will become whatever they will be

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strategisk ledelse

Strategisk Ledelse

2. undervisningsgang – 3. september 2012

strategy and organizational change
Strategy and organizational change
  • Our focus is is ways of thinking about how organizations change over time
  • How organizations have become what they are and how they will become whatever they will be
  • Two basic questions for summarizing theories:
    • What are the phenomena that are being talked when the terms ’Strategy’ and ’Organizational Change’ are used?
    • How do human beings make sense of the phenomena, including those that this bookis concerned with, and in what traditions og thought is such sense-making located?
the phenomena of interest dynamic human organizations
The phenomena of interest:Dynamic Human organizations

Populations of organizations

  • Over time, organizations are set up and dissolved, primarily small ones but also larger
  • Average lifespan in Western countries: 40 years
  • Changes are seen through mergers and divests
  • Organizations supply each other with goods and services and some exert power over others.
  • Geographical changes
  • Changes in government of organizations
the phenomena of interest dynamic human organizations1
The phenomena of interest:Dynamic Human organizations

Dynamic Phenomena

  • Stability and change simultaneously
  • The phenomena of interest is highly dynamic
  • Dynamic phenomena displays patterns as they evolve over time
  • A study of these are concerned with what generates these patterns and properties of:
    • Stability / instability
    • Regularity / inregularity
    • Predictability / unpredictability

Key question

the phenomena of interest dynamic human organizations2
The phenomena of interest:Dynamic Human organizations

Degrees of detail

  • Macro level of analysis; whole organizations
  • Micro level of analysis; individual human beings
  • Distinct levels (ontological) of reality?
  • Or could be different degrees of examination .
  • In these theories, individuals, groups and organizations are simply aspects of the same processes of human interaction
  • Account of political and emotion involved
the phenomena of interest dynamic human organizations3
The phenomena of interest:Dynamic Human organizations

Interaction

  • Strategy and organizational change is about interaction
  • In systems theory, interactions are carried out on same systems layer
  • Stacey points out an alternative; as responsive processes of direct communicating and power relating between human bodies
  • Systemic vs. responsive process theories.
  • Key question; interaction and interconnection distinguishes theories from each other
introduction to ontology and epistemology
Introduction to Ontology and Epistemology

Ontology is concerned about reality. It deals with questions concerning what entities exist or can be said to exist, and how such entities can be grouped, related within a hierarchy, and subdivided according to similarities and differences

Parmenides was among the first to propose an ontological characterization of the fundamental nature of reality.

Epistemology is concerned with knowing how you can know. It is focused on analyzing the nature of knowledge and how it relates to similar notions such as truth, belief, and justification. It also deals with the means of production of knowledge, as well as skepticism about different knowledge claims.

making sense of the phenomena realism relativism and idealism
Making sense of the phenomena:Realism, relativism and idealism

Different views on reality, sense and human beings

making sense of the phenomena realism relativism and idealism1
Making sense of the phenomena:Realism, relativism and idealism

The individual and the group

  • Romantic idealist, reflexive, social constructionist, very significant on assumptions individual/group
  • Realist, idealist and constructivists presents capacities / limits of the autonomous human being
  • Romantic idealist view on individual and group are paradoxical in nature and central to the book.
  • Any view on the nature of strategy and change, implies a view on the nature of human knowing
making sense of the phenomena realism relativism and idealism2
Making sense of the phenomena:Realism, relativism and idealism

The nature of causality

  • Western culture implies linear cause / effect
  • Increasingly departure from this approach, due to its simplistic nature -> mutual / circular
  • Bidirectional and nonlinear causes and effects, one variable can have more proportional effect
  • Thinking about causality is important when thinking about strategy and change
slide13

Staceys four questions

  • 1: How does the theory understands interactions and relations
      • Level
        • System
        • Proces
      • Dynamics
        • How does the phenomena evovle over time? (in)stability & (un)predictability
      • Causality
        • Cause and effect relations
slide14

Staceys four questions

  • 2: Which psycological standpoint is taken?
      • Cognitive
      • Human
      • Psycho analytical
      • Relational psycological
        • Relation between individual and group
        • Emotion and power
slide15

Staceys four questions

  • 3: Which methodology does the theory Support?
    • Is the CEO an:
      • Objective observer
      • Participating reflective inquirer
slide16

Staceys four questions

  • 4: How does the theory deal with paradoxical nature?
      • Dichotomy– Contradictions that excludes each other. It is ‘Either … Or’
      • Dilemma – two equally unattractive alternatives, It is ”Either … Or”
      • Dualism– two independent and contradictorily features that can be eliminated / solved by ”Both … And”
      • Paradox– para´Besides´ + dóksa ´meaning, learning´ - ” Both … And”
excersise
Excersise
  • Form 2-3 groups
  • Explain, in your own words, the meaning of the four questions
next time
Nexttime
  • Please read chapter three