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Managing GIS. Longley Ch. 17. Information Sources . Tomlinson, Roger Thinking about GIS: GIS Planning for Managers ESRI Press, 2003 Zeiler, M. Modeling our World: The ESRI Guide to Geodatabase Design ESRI Press, 1999

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managing gis

Managing GIS

Longley Ch. 17

information sources
Information Sources

Tomlinson, Roger Thinking about GIS: GIS Planning for Managers ESRI Press, 2003

Zeiler, M. Modeling our World: The ESRI Guide to Geodatabase Design ESRI Press, 1999

Huxhold, William E. and Levinsohn, Allan G. Managing Geographic Information System Projects New York: Oxford, 1995

Harmon and Anderson The Design and implementation of Geographic Information Systems Wiley, 2003

Obermeyer, Nancy J. and Pinto, Jeffrey K. Managing Geographic Information Systems New York: The Guilford Press, 1994 (dated and very academic)

von Meyer, Nancy and R. Scott Oppman Enterprise GIS.URISA, 1999, 98 pp. (set of case studies)

Derek Reeve, GIS, Organizations and People London: Taylor & Francis, 2000 (UK case studies)

the problem
The problem
  • Graduate student wants to use spatial analysis on field data for health study
  • Small consulting company with massive collection of site plans wants to automate delivery of plans to developers to save money
  • Government of country wants to support 2010 census with automated mapping, analysis and Internet-based publishing/searching of new data
which level of gis

Which level of GIS?

Project

Single department application (Departmental GIS)

Multi departmental application

Enterprise system (Enterprise GIS)

Multi Organizational endeavor (Community GIS)

example enterprise
Example: Enterprise
  • Debra Gondeck-Becker, Assoc. AIA Jordani Consulting Group
  • Implementing an Enterprise-Wide Space Management System - A Case Study at the University of Minnesota
  • 1999 Study with Test Implementation
level i project
Level I: Project
  • Organizational Environment
    • Expected result is a product, e.g a map or report
    • Project has an end date an finite project
    • No long-term support expected & no commitment to ongoing GIS
    • Little organizational impact
  • GIS Implementation Approach
    • One-time effort
    • Need best tool for the job
    • Consultant or contractor may do entire thing
level ii single department
Level II: Single Department
  • Organizational Environment
    • Small Organization or Single Department
    • Well-defined, existing business function to be supported
    • Ongoing support is required but no commitment to GIS
    • Little or no reorganization e.g. manual drafters shift to GIS workstation
    • Managed by departmental responsible for business activity
  • GIS Implementation Approach
    • PC or standalone workstation
    • maybe CAD focused
    • Little or no integration with attribute databases
    • Little sharing of information within or beyond department
level iii multi department
Level III: Multi-Department
  • Organizational Environment
    • Mid-size to large organization, more than one department
    • More significant commitment of staff and budget to GIS
    • Ongoing support and update strategies
    • Some organizational implications (“Champion”)
    • Managed by cooperating departments
  • GIS Implementation
    • Multiple, networked PCs/workstations
    • Topological GIS
    • Object/Relational database
    • Some information sharing between departments
level iv enterprise system
Level IV: Enterprise System
  • Organizational Environment
    • Usually medium to large organization, multiple departments
    • High level long-term commitment to GIS
    • Organization-level strategic planning, distributed implementation and maintenance
    • Incorporation of GIS as part of organizational infrastructure
    • Corporate management support and involvement is essential
  • GIS Implementation
    • Distributed client-server network(s)
    • Integration of multiple GIS, database, and related technologies
    • Multi-department data sharing, standards and metadata
level v multi organizational
Level V: Multi-Organizational
  • Organizational Environment
    • Public organizations or industry alliance (See Ch. 20 on Partnerships)
    • Multi-participant organizational structure for planning and policy
    • Distributed maintenance responsibilities across organizations
    • Long-term, high level commitments among participating organizations
    • Significant reorganization of functions across organizations
  • GIS Implementation
    • Distributed maintenance of shared elements
    • Data exchange facility and standards and metadata, Internet or other WAN
    • Data integration from multiple technologies
management responsibilities
Management Responsibilities
  • Planning
    • Choice
    • Design
    • Strategy
    • Staffing
  • Standardize
    • Interoperability
    • Reuse
  • Document
    • Assume personnel loss and turnover
    • Write formal documents
ten step gis planning methodology tomlinson thinking about gis

Needs Assessment

Concept. Design

Physical Design

Implementation

Ten step GIS Planning MethodologyTomlinson, Thinking About GIS
  • Consider the strategic purpose
  • Plan for the planning
  • Conduct a technology seminar
  • Describe the information products
  • Define the system scope
  • Create a data design
  • Choose a logical model
  • Determine system requirements
  • Benefit-cost, migration and risk analysis
  • Make an implementation plan
slide17

4. Cost-Benefit

Analysis

11.

Implementation

Plan

1.Definition of

Objectives

8.

Shortlisting

5.

Pilot Study

12.

Contract

2. User

Requirements

9. Benchmark

Testing

3. Preliminary

Design

10. Cost-

Effectiveness

Evaluation

13. Acceptance

Testing

Analysis of

Requirements

Evaluation of

Alternatives

Specification of

Requirements

Implementation

of System

6.

Final Design

7. Request for

Proposal (RFP)

14.

Implementation

A Fourteen Step

Implementation Process!

(assumes external acquisition)

Source: Longley, et. al. p. 391

gis implementation issues
GIS Implementation issues
  • GIS Paradigm
    • Use of spatial location as integrating framework for information
    • Power of spatial analysis
  • Geographic Data Management Principles
    • Extend data management principles to include geography
    • Builds on standard IT practice
  • Technology
    • Select appropriate GIS-enabling technology and plan to evolve
    • Follow and exploit new technologies
  • Organizational Setting
    • Organizational setting a crucial ingredient to success/failure
    • Level and nature of enterprise
pilot projects
Pilot Projects
  • As a demonstration, to show potential users the possible utility of GIS
  • As an experiment to test a particular technical aspect of implementation
  • As a temporary operation or production environment to assess operational feasibility or to determine organizational impact
  • As a trail run to test adequacy of project planing and design
  • As a benchmark test to compare hardware, software, network configurations being considered
resources for developing a gis
Resources for Developing a GIS
  • Developing a GIS involves investment in five areas: computer hardware, computer software, geographic data, procedures and trained staff.
  • Developing the geographic database (which includes some of the procedure and staff costs) can account for 60% to 80% of the GIS development cost.
staffing requirements for a gis
Staffing Requirements for a GIS
  • Three areas where expertise is needed includes management of the GIS project (GIS project manager), GIS database skill (database administrator), and application development for database and users (GIS software analyst).
  • In the case that the three experts are hired, a full-time GIS manager is available on staff.
  • Alternatives to staff expansion are consultants and data conversion firms.
system development team
System development team

Seconded from

line business unit?

Seconded from

or hired by IT?

Full time!

Technical staff: IS & GIS programmers, database, computer operators,

cartographers, data entry

Support Staff: administrative, secretarial

gis development cycle
GIS Development Cycle

First decides what the GIS should do, second decide how the GIS will accomplish each task.

Needs

Assessment

Conceptual

Design

Database

Planning

and Design

Database

Construction

Available

Data Survey

GIS Use and

Database

Maintenance

GIS

System

Integration

Application

Development

Pilot /

Benchmark

Acquisition of

GIS HW and

SW

HW and

SW Survey

process flow
Process Flow
  • Needs assessment
  • System conceptual design
  • Survey existing data
  • Select and implement hardware and software
  • Implement
  • Evaluate and improve
needs assessment
Needs Assessment
  • Data/map inventory is not always a wise approach (legacy approach)
  • Interviews, focus groups can capture the needs of a dept (managers, users, customers)
  • Compiling the results of the needs assessment
    • Master data list
    • Master function list
    • Budget constraints
  • Assess available systems
  • Create matrix
  • Score systems (yes, no or ratings)
  • Select system with highest score
example paper walkthrough
Example: Paper walkthrough

GIS Application Description Form

(New York State Archives)

Application Identification

Description

Functions

Plateau

or

Terrace

Entities Attributes

Lower

Slope

Rise

conceptual design29
Conceptual Design
  • Data needs identification from the needs assessment
  • Selection and creation of the data model (including metadata)
  • Workflow plan for entering data into the database
  • Updating and maintenance
conceptual design30
Conceptual Design

Life Cycle of a GIS Database: Source Documents

Source Documents: Maps, Images, Air Photos, etc.

Data Objects Identified During Needs Assessment

Preparation of Data Model

Match Needed Data to Available Data and Sources

Survey and Evaluation of Available Data

Prepared Detailed Database Plan

Map and Tabular Data Conversion

Create Initial Metadata

Add Record Retention Schedules to Metadata

Database QA/QC Editing

Shelf

GIS Database

Continuing GIS

Database Maintenance

Lower

Slope

Database Backups

Archives

(courtesy of New York State Archives)

describe formal design
Describe Formal Design

Simple Entity - Relationship (E-R) Diagram

Entities represented as rectangles, relationshipas diamonds and attributes as ellipses.

Building Located on Parcel

Resides Owned

by

Occupant John Smith Owner Acme Corp.

Shelf

Upper

Slope

Plateau

or

Terrace

Lower

Slope

Deep

Ocean

Rise

need for metadata
Need for Metadata
  • Information about data
    • describe the characteristics of the data (entity and attributes)
    • provide information on accuracy and source
  • Functions of metadata
    • a basic data description of a data set
    • information for data transfer/sharing
    • information for entries into clearinghouses to catalog availability
survey of available data
Survey of Available Data
  • Inventory maps, tables, digital or analog
  • Consider all useful (air photos, remote sensing, DEMs, vector maps, CAD files, scanned images, survey data, field data, statistical data
  • Document availability: Source, costs, redistribution rights, licenses, etc.
  • Document accuracy, precision, date, consistency
  • Identify, acquire, reformat, transform
  • Ingest
gis hardware and software selection
GIS Hardware and Software Selection
  • Status of the current hardware and software market
  • What are other people (consulting firms, universities, governments) using?
  • Note hardware and software combinations
  • Local data formats and data conversion capabilities
survey of gis hardware and software
Survey of GIS Hardware and Software
  • Select Software first
  • Evaluate software functionality and performance
  • Conduct tests and benchmarks
  • Test systems integration: Use real data
  • Select hardware to suit software, plan on 2-3 year HW cycle other than special devices
    • Memory and disk are cheap
  • Make choice and purchase
  • Consider licensing, maintenance, training etc.
large scale hardware and software procurement
Identify an Evaluation Team

Research purchasing rules & processes

Obtain samples of RFPs

Define evaluation criteria & include in RFP

Prepare Request for Proposal (RFP)

Distribute RFP to potential vendors

Hold Bidders Meeting

Evaluate Proposals

Select Winner and Write Contract

Large Scale: Hardware and Software Procurement
gis development guides state of new york local government technology services 1997

Needs

Assessment

Conceptual

Design

Database

Database

Planning

Construction

and Design

GIS Use and

Available

Data Survey

GIS System

Application

Database

Integration

Development

Maintenance

Acquisition of

Pilot/

GIS Hardware

Benchmark

and Software

H/W & S/W

Survey

GIS Development GuidesState of New York, Local Government Technology Services (1997)

http://www.sara.nysed.gov/pubs/gis/gisindex.htm

1

2

6

5

3

11

9

9

8

7

4

issues during implementation campbell 1992
Issues During ImplementationCampbell, (1992)
  • Technological, associated with system compatibility
  • Data-related, associated with lack of consistency between data sets
  • Organizational, associated with data ownership and control
  • Institutional, associated with how to use data in the policy-making process

Time

institutional factors campbell 1992
Institutional FactorsCampbell, 1992
  • Organizations, and units in them, jealously guard their scope of activity and treat with suspicion proposals that may change this
  • Applications that give cost savings are more readily accepted than decision-making applications
  • Local communities very suspicious of developments that suggest centralization of information and therefore power
  • GIS techies often uncomfortable with social and political aspects of system implementation and utilization, thus need to involve politically-adept users/line managers/policy makers
and the process is endless source longley et al p 390

Business Planning

System Design

and Acquisition

Operation and

Maintenance

System Implementation

…and the process is endlesssource: Longley, et. al. p. 390