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Chapter 2 Challenges for Managers
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  1. Chapter 2Challenges for Managers Describe the factors that affect organizations competing in the global economy. Explain how cultural differences form the basis of work-related attitudes. Describe the challenges and positive influences diversity bring to today’s business environment. Discuss the role of ethics, character, and personal integrity in the organization. Explain five issues that pose ethical dilemmas for managers. Describe the effects of technological advances on today’s workforce. Learning Outcomes © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  2. Learning Outcome 1 Describe the factors that affect organizations competing in the global economy. © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  3. Four Challenges Globalization Diversity Ethics Technology © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  4. Remaining Competitive • Globalizing the firm’s operations • Managing a diverse workforce • Keeping up with technological change and implementing technology in the workplace • Managing ethical behavior © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  5. Changing Business Perspectives From International(which implies an individual’s or organization’s held nationality is strongly in consciousness) To Globalization(which implies the world is free from national boundaries and that it is really a borderless world) © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  6. Changing Business Perspectives From Multinational Organizations (in which the organization was recognized as doing business with other countries) ToTransnational Organizations (in which the global viewpoint supersedes national issues) © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  7. Beyond the Book:China and Globalization • Suntech Power, China’s largest solar panel manufacturer, opening a plant in Arizona. • Will build panels from parts manufactured in China and Texas. • Important factor – shipping costs. • Suntech has goal of reaching 20% US market share by end of 2010. © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  8. GLOBAL MARKETPLACE • Opening of Chinese market • Creation of the European Union • Establishment of NAFTA CHANGES IN THE © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding Cultural Differences HOFSTEDE’S DIMENSIONS © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  10. Where the U.S. Stands ON HOFSTEDE’S DIMENSIONS © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  11. Learning Outcome 2 Explain how cultural differences form the basis of work-related attitudes. © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  12. Developing Cross-Cultural Sensitivity • Cultural sensitivity training • Cross-cultural task forces/teams • Global view of human resource functions • Planning • Recruitment and Selection • Compensation • Training and Development © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  13. Learning Outcome 3 Describe the challenges and positive influences diversity brings to today’s business environment. © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  14. Diversity all forms of individual differences, including culture, gender, age, ability, personality, religious affiliation, economic class, social status, military attachment and sexual orientation © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  15. Diversity Statistics for the Workplace Ethnic 2020 Workforce: 68% white non-Hispanic 14% Hispanic 11% African-American 5% Asian Gender 2020 Workforce: 50% male 50% female © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  16. Beyond the Book:Diversity in College Football • According to The Institute for Diversity and Ethics in Sport at the University of South Florida, key leadership positions at Football Bowl Subdivision schools remain predominantly white and male. • 100% of athletic conference commissioners. • 93.3% of university presidents • 86.7% of athletic directors • 92.5% of head football coaches • 82.9% of faculty © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  17. & OBSTACLES AT WORK • Comprise over 60% of the workforce • Earn 49% of all doctorates • Earn 60% of master’s degrees • Earn 58% of undergraduate degrees BUT • Little increase in number of women CEOs. • Earn 81% of what male counterparts do. • Encounter the glass ceiling in the workplace WOMEN © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  18. Diversity Statistics Affecting the Workplace Age By 2030, people over 65 will comprise 20% of the population. Ability An estimated 50 million disabled live in the U.S.; their unemployment rate exceeds 50%. © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  19. Beyond the Book:Diversifying Dell • Reverse mentoring scheme at Dell. • Women in middle-management mentor senior-level men. • Based on recognition that some aspects of leadership do not come as naturally to men as they do to women. © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  20. Diversity’s Benefits & Problems BENEFITS PROBLEMS • Attracts and retains the best talent • Improves marketing efforts • Promotes creativity and innovation • Results in better problem solving • Enhances organizational flexibility • Resistance to change • Lack of cohesiveness • Communication problems • Interpersonal conflicts • Slower decision making © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  21. Learning Outcome 4 Discuss the role of ethics, character, and personal integrity in the organization. © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  22. Ethical Theories [Rule-Based Theory] an ethical theory that emphasizes the character of the act itself rather than its effects [Consequential Theory] an ethical theory that emphasizes the consequences or results of behavior [Character Theory] an ethical theory that emphasizes the character, personal virtues, and integrity of the individual © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  23. Learning Outcome 5 Explain five issues that pose ethical dilemmas for managers. © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  24. Employee Rights Issues Technology and privacy HIV/AIDS Confidentiality © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  25. Sexual Harassment = Unwanted Sexual Attention • Gender Harassment – crude comments; behaviors that convey hostility toward a particular gender • Unwanted Sexual Attention – unwanted touching, unwanted pressure for dates • Sexual Coercion – demands for sexual favors through job-related threats or promises © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  26. Organizational Justice Distributive Justice – fairness of the outcomes that individuals receive in an organization Procedural Justice – fairness by which the outcomes are allocated in an organization © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  27. Individual and Organizational Responsibility Whistle-Blower –an employee who informs authorities of the wrongdoing of his or her company or coworkers • Public Hero or Vile Wretch? Social Responsibility – the obligation of an organization to behave ethically © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  28. The Four Way Test • Is it the TRUTH? • Is it FAIR to all concerned? • Will it build GOODWILL and better friendships? • Will it be BENEFICIAL to all concerned? © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  29. Learning Outcome 6 Describe the effects of technological advances on today’s workforce. © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  30. Technological Innovation Examples Internet Expert System Robotics Technology The intellectual and mechanical processes used by an organization. The intellectual and mechanical processes used by an organization to transform inputs into products or services that meet organizational goals. © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  31. Beyond the Book:Addicted to the Internet • Technology can be addicting. • Key warning sign – being preoccupied with online activities, adversely affecting relationships • Types – pornography, gambling, auctions sites, games. © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  32. Alternative Work Arrangements Telecommuting Satellite offices Virtual offices © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  33. Alternative Work Arrangements [Employees] • Gain flexibility • Save the commute to work • Enjoy the comforts of home [But, they ] • Have distractions • Lack socialization opportunities • Lack interaction with supervisors • Identify less with the organization © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  34. Technological Change Requires Managers to: • Develop technical competence to gain workers’ respect • Focus on helping workers manage the stress of their work • Take advantage of the wealth of information available to motivate, coach, and counsel—not to control © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  35. Help Employees Adjust by • Involving them in decision making regarding technological change • Selecting technology that increases workers’ skill requirements • Providing effective training • Establishing support groups • Encouraging reinvention(creative application of new technology) © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  36. While watching this sequence, pretend you have arrived in Tokyo, and you are experiencing what you are seeing. Do you understand everything you see? • Is Charlotte bewildered by her experiences? Is she experiencing some culture shock? • What aspects of Japanese culture appear in this sequence? What do you see as important values of Japanese culture? Review the Chapter 2 section, "Cultural Differences," to gain some insights about these questions. Lost in Translation