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The Pharmacy Technician: Chapter 1 History

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  1. The Pharmacy Technician:Chapter 1 History

  2. Five Historical Periods Ancient Era: The beginning of time to 1600 AD Empiric Era: 1600 to 1940 Industrialization Era: 1940 to 1970 Patient Care Era: 1970 to present Biotechnology and genetic engineering: The new horizon

  3. The Ancient Era Leaves, mud, and cool water were used to stop bleeding and heal wounds Early man learned from watching injured animals’ behaviors

  4. Ancient Era Knowledge of materials with healing properties was passed down through the tribes Medical information was documented on clay tablets around 2600 BC

  5. The Beginnings of Pharmacy The Ebers Papyrus, written around 1500 BC, contained formulas for more than 800 remedies Each tribe had a designated person who was the equivalent of a priest, pharmacist, and physician all in one

  6. The Beginnings of Pharmacy The earliest known record of the practice of pharmacy occurred in Mesopotamia around 2600 BC. Herbs were the predominant form of curatives

  7. The Greeks Hippocrates, the “father of medicine,” liberated medicine from the belief that disease was caused by spiritual reasons Theophrastus, the “father of botany,” classified plants by their various parts

  8. The Greeks Mithridates studied the adverse effects of plants and later became known as the “father of toxicology”

  9. The Romans The Romans organized medical and pharmaceutical knowledge and converted theories into scientific rules The Romans, as well as the Greeks, were responsible for preparing their own prescriptions

  10. The Romans The Romans initiated the first job titles of various pharmacy-related personnel

  11. Other Pioneers Dioscorides began the transition of the Greek system of knowledge into the Roman system of science; he is known as the “father of pharmacology”

  12. Other Pioneers Galen, a Greek physician, wrote “On the Art of Healing,” and was very critical of physicians who did not prepare their own remedies Cosmos and Damien, the patron saints of pharmacy and medicine, practiced both disciplines around 300 AD

  13. Roman Pharmacy Titles Pharmacopeia — makers of remedies Pharmacotritae — drug grinders Unguentarii — makers of ointments Pigmentarii –— makers of cosmetics Pharmacopolae — sellers of drugs Aromatarii — dealers in spices

  14. The Arabian Influence Formularies — continuation of documentation of drug information Dosage forms — syrups, conserves, confections, and juleps

  15. The Arabian Influence Pharmacy shops — first appeared in Baghdad around 762 AD, and were privately owned Hospital pharmacies followed in Marrakech around 1190 AD

  16. The Italian Influence Europe’s first university was established in Salerno, and was responsible for major contributions to pharmacy and medicine The Magna Carta of Pharmacy, separating pharmacy from medicine, was issued by Emperor Frederick II Guilds of pharmacists were established

  17. New Ideas A Swiss physician, Paracelsus, contradicted the Galenic theories of botanical orientation to medicine with his own theories based on chemicals

  18. New Ideas Monasteries became host to their own pharmacies Germany became the first to governmentally regulate its pharmacies

  19. The Influence of Royalty Pharmacists who worked for royal families provided specialized services, and were known as apothecaries New medicinal herbal substances, plants, trees, and seeds began to be used Better documentation of this new knowledge began to occur

  20. The Renaissance Pharmacy became separated from medicine Pharmacy regulation began University education of pharmacists was now required

  21. The Renaissance Larger quantities of known and new drugs were imported from the New World and the Orient New chemical medicines were introduced

  22. The Empiric Era Pharmacopeias became the regulatory tools of government, with standardized medicines listed Existing medications were questioned and tested as to their actual effectiveness

  23. The Empiric Era In the 18th century, pharmacy began to develop in the colonies of the New World In 1751, Benjamin Franklin started the first hospital in America

  24. The Empiric Era The first hospital pharmacist was Jonathan Roberts William Proctor introduced control into the practice of pharmacy in the New World

  25. Drugs Discovered in the 19th Century Quinine Caffeine Morphine Codeine Niacin Adrenalin Penicillin Phenobarbital Testosterone

  26. The Industrialization Era Firms other than the pharmacies themselves began centralized manufacturing of medicinal preparations

  27. The Industrialization Era The periods of development of manufacturing pharmacy began as follows: Formative (1867) Botanical (1875) Standardization (1882) Organic Chemicals (1883)

  28. The Industrialization Era Biological (1895) Hormones (1901) Vitamins (1909) Antibiotics (1940)

  29. The Growth of Industrialization Large amounts of war-related injuries required industrial manufacturing in order to meet the need for pharmaceutical products Many retail pharmacists protested the industrialization of manufacturing

  30. The Growth of Industrialization Industrialization brought about biologically prepared products, complex chemical synthesis, increased use of parenteral medications, and standardized manufacturing

  31. Retail Pharmacy The pharmaceutical industry created new needs, to the advantage of retail pharmacy Retail pharmacy has proved to be indispensable and irreplaceable as the fitting and distributing agency of medicinal products

  32. Retail Pharmacy Manufacturing and retail pharmacy are two branches of the same tree

  33. The Patient Care Era Increased concentration on rational, targeted research through the use of computers Increased number of available medicines

  34. The Patient Care Era Well-coordinated teams of scientists with other professions such as statisticians and financial managers Multiple drug therapy, however, led to adverse reactions, interactions, and therapeutic outcomes that were greater or less than desired

  35. Patient-Focused Drug Therapy Also thought of as drug control or drug monitoring C.D. Hepler established the concept of pharmaceutical care around 1988 A pharmacist’s education must now focus on human behavior as it relates to providing practiced, patient-focused care

  36. The New Horizon Research into gene therapy and genetic defects has greatly increased Recombinant DNA technology is producing new medications based on the patient’s genetic make-up

  37. The New Horizon Some medications that come from natural sources, such as insulin, are prone to producing allergies Genetic research is involved in the pursuit of cures for major diseases, such as cancer