What is Prison? • Prison is an institution that a person is sent to in order to be punished for a crime that he/she has been found guilty of committing (Behan, 2007). • Prison is not only used as a punishment now, but as a form of rehabilitation. • Education in the prison system is a way to accomplish this. • GED Programs • Vocational Course • Post-Secondary Educational Classes
Recidivism • Recidivism is when an inmate is released from prison, then commits another crime and re-enters. • On average - a women prisoner is in prison for 2.4 years. • It costs taxpayers $25,000 per year for a woman in prison (Wheeldon, 2011). • Within 3 years, 40% of women will go back into prison- costing society more money (Bui & Morash, 2010).
Statistics of Women in Prison • 44% of women prisoners do not have a high school diploma (Ellis, McFadden, & Colaric, 2008). • 37% obtained State Assistance • 40% grew up in single parent households • 40% of women in prison have been physically or sexually abused
Problems in Women Prisons • Women in prison have low self- esteem and have not completely high school due to the feeling that teachers are not compassionate (Mageehon, 2003). • Overcrowding leads to distractions in the classroom and also prison transfers (Palmer, 2012). • It also leads to a higher level of anxiety. Inmates may be nervous to express concerns or talk more in class in fear of being wrong or made fun of (Rose, 2004).
Correctional Leaders vs. Educational Leaders • Correctional Leaders - #1 Goal is SAFETY! (Ellis, McFadden, & Colaric, 2008) • Educational Leaders need to be trained in safety. They also have to obey all prison rules and regulations. • No set specific goals – Correctional leaders and educational leaders are always conflicting. • It is important that both work together in order to promote safety as well as education.
State Funding • Decrease in state funding for all educational programs. Prison is included. (Betts, Hartman, & Oxholm, 2009). • Hiring freezes, budget cuts, layoffs, etc. are affecting all aspects of education. • Inmates in prison is costly for taxpayers. If evidence shows that education in the prison system prevents recidivism, it in turn will save the government money ( Wheeldon, 2011).
Futuring • Futuring is having a view of the future in order to be prepared for change (Houle, 2008). • Personal view- An inmate sees herself leaving, getting a job and providing for family. • Negative view- An inmate will leave prison, be unable to find a job due to the social stigma of being a convict, and will end up back in prison • The inmate has no view of what her future is. It is important for an inmate to have a personal view that is POSITIVE in order to prevent RECIVIDISM.
Vision for 2019 • Correctional Leaders and Educational Leaders will work tomorrow to develop a curriculum for prison education. • The program will constitute safety as well as what is necessary for educational programs to be successful. • Program would train women for job preparation and personal growth. • Presented to lawmakers to allocate budget for prison system.
Steps for the 2019 Vision #1. Educational Leaders must be properly trained to work in the prison environment and with the prisoners. #2. Collaborate with Correctional Leaders to establish safe environment. A Curriculum would be established. #3. Inmates that are willing to participate #4. Program is presented to government for proper budget. Program must include research on positive outcomes of education, as well as how problems in prison will overcome.
Ultimate Goal Successful educational programs in women correctional institutions will help women feel that when they leave prison, they will be prepared for the outside world. They will have higher self-esteem in obtaining jobs. This in turn will lower the rate of women re-entering to prison. Less Crime Less Victimization Less Recidivism More $$ for Government
References Behan, C. (2007). Context, Creativity, and Critical Reflection: Education in Correctional Institutions. The Journal of Correctional Education, 58(2), 157-169. Betts, K., Hartman, K., & Oxholm, C. (2010). Re-Examining & Repositioning Higher Education: Twenty Economic and Demographic Factors Driving Online and Blended Program Enrollments. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 13(4), 3-23. Ellis, J., McFadden, C., & Colaric, S. (2008). Factors Influencing the Design, Establishment, Administration, and Governance for Correctional Education for Females. The Journal of Correctional Education, 59(3), 198-217. Houle, D. (2008, May 10). What is A Futurist? Retrieved January 14, 2014, from YouTube: http://www/youtube.com/watch?v=iQyysb8nqMQ Mageehon, A. (2003). Incarcerated Women's Educational Experiences. The Journal of Correctional Education, 54(4), 191-199. Mietzner, D., & Reger, G. (2005). Advantages and disadvantages of scenario approaches for strategic foresight. Int.J. Technology Intelligence and Planning, 1(20, 220-239.. Palmer, S. (2012). Postsecondary Correctional Education: Recognizing and Overcoming Barriers to Success. Adult Learning, 23(4), 163-169. Rose, C. (2004). Women's Participation in Prison Education: What We Know and What We Don't Know. The Journal of Correctional Education, 55(1), 78-100. Wheeldon, J. (2011). Visualizing the Future of Research on Post Secondary Correctional Education: Designs, Data, And Deliverables. The Journal of Correctional Education, 62(2), 94-113.