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Using Your Voice. Notes for Sept. 3rd. To produce sound, the lungs, mouth and throat work together to do three things…. Generate sound Resonate sound Articulate sound. The Respiration Cycle. Inhalation The diaphragm contracts, drawing in air through the mouth/nose and down the throat

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using your voice

Using Your Voice

Notes for Sept. 3rd

to produce sound the lungs mouth and throat work together to do three things
To produce sound, the lungs, mouth and throat work together to do three things…

Generate sound

Resonate sound

Articulate sound

the respiration cycle
The Respiration Cycle
  • InhalationThe diaphragm contracts, drawing in air through the mouth/nose and down the throat

Air passes through the larynx and trachea, and into the lungs

  • ExhalationAs the diaphragm relaxes, the air is pushed back up through the trachea and larynx and out the nose/throat

A valve in the larynx opens/closes during the cycle to allow food and drink to go the right way. During quiet breathing the vocal chords remain open so that air can move freely in and out of the lungs. While eating/drinking, the vocal folds close off the trachea, protecting you from choking

using respiration when speaking
Using Respiration when Speaking

A burst of air is sent from the lungs up the larynx to get your vocal folds vibrating (try saying “ah” to feel this)

You inhale more swiftly and deeply when you speak…and you prolong airflow as you exhale

Muscles in the chest wall contract to counteract the force of the relaxing diaphragm as you exhale, so that not all the air leaves at once, allowing you to speak

When you start to run out of air, another set of muscles begins to contract, forcing out a bit more air, allowing you to continue speech…you control air flow, so you don’t gulp air as you speak

the resonators
The Resonators
  • The resonators of sound for speech in the human body are:
  • The bones in the chest, neck and head
  • The cavities (partially enclosed areas) of the throat, nose and mouthNote: The larger the cavity, the lower the sound

With your lips barely touching, hum m-m-m-m-m-m-m-m…and feel the bones in your head vibrate

Touch the bridge of your nose while humming ng-ng-ng-ng-ng

slide6

There are three main cavities in the human body.

THE THROAT

Also known as the pharyngeal cavity, it is very flexible, and differs in size and wall thickness from person to person

THE NOSEAlso known as the nasal cavity, it has a direct impact on the three nasal sound you can make

the (m) soundthe (n) sound

the (ng) sound…as in “sing”To a certain extent, the nasal cavity affects the sound of all speech.

THE MOUTH

Also known as the oral cavity, it is the easiest to alter, simply by changing the shape of its opening by moving the tongue, lips and jaw.

slide7
ARTICULATION is the shaping of speech sounds into recognizable oral symbols that go together to make up a word.

Vowel Sounds

Consonant Sounds

Are formed in three ways:

By moving the tongue to various parts of the mouth

By pointing, arching, or flattening the tongue

By moving and shaping the lips

Are formed by changing the

size of the oral cavity and the

shape of the opening

a speaker who produces clear consonants and distinct vowels is said to have good articulation
A speaker who produces clear consonants and distinct vowels is said to have good articulation

A speaker who clearly combines precisely articulated sounds into distinct words is said to have good pronunciation

pitch is the highness or lowness of the sound you make
PITCH is the highness or lowness of the sound you make
  • Key is the average pitch at which you speak

Find your optimum pitch

  • Melody refers to the variations in pitch that help to give expression to your voice

Avoid sounding montone!

  • Range is the spread between the lowest and the highest notes you can speak comfortably

Again…avoid monotony!

  • Inflection is the upward or downward glide of your pitch as you speak

Rising inflections communicate doubt or

surprise; Falling inflections communicate

certainty or finality

A step is an abrupt change in pitch

slide11

Volume is the loudness or intensity of sound

To increase loudness, you

have to increase the

pressure behind the

column of air being forced

up from the lungs through

the vocal folds

This pressure needs to

come from your chest and

stomach, not your neck

and throat!

Rate is the speed at which you talk

Normal speed is from 120 to

about 160 words per minute

slide12
Quality is the tone of your voice…your personal quality is what makes your voice different from others

Common problems include:

  • Nasality too much nasal resonance
  • Breathiness too much unvoiced air escaping through the vocal folds
  • Harshness speaking with too much tension in the larynx area
  • Hoarseness speaking with too much tension for too long in the larynx area
correcting articulation problems
Correcting Articulation Problems
  • Substituting one sound for another

da for the

radder for rather, dose for

those

t for th

Tink for think, anyting for anything

ks for s

Excape for escape

short i for short e

git for get, pin for pen

  • Leaving Out a Sound (called omission)

dropping the d

wount for wouldn’t, frien for friend

dropping the t

mos for most, jus for just, bes for best

dropping the l

hep for help, woof for wolf, sauve for solve

dropping the e along with a consonant

sound

probly for probably, member for remember

slide14

Adding an Extra Sound

Adding t in words in words where t is

Silent

soften for sofen, hasten for hasen

Adding short e sound

filum for film, childaren for children

Adding r to ends of words

idear for idea, drawr, draw

Adding sound to the beginning of words

ahold for hold, especial for special

  • Transposing Sounds

Ks for sk

aks for ask

Erd for red

hunderd for hundred

Per for pre

perscribe for prescribe, perfer for prefer

Ern for ren, or ren for ern

childern for children, modren for

modern

assignment
Assignment

It’s time to write your first speech!

For next class, write a 2-minute introduction to yourself. The information you provide should focus solely on who you are now…and perhaps a little about what you hope to become.

Please try to keep in mind all we have discussed up to this point concerning what makes your voice work best when speaking in public!