1. Medical Model • Assumes that atypical behaviour is the result of a physical issue. • Behaviour can be treated medically.
Explanations for Behaviour • Genes (hereditary) • Biomechanical Imbalance (e.g hormones) • Neuroanatomy Problems. (Chua et al, 1995)
Medical Therapies • Drugs: anti-depressants, egProzac. They can be used for both depression and eating disorders. Its effectiveness supports the medical model. • The drugs don’t work: Electroconvulsive therapy, weight restoration. • ECT: Comer (2002) found a 60-70% improvement rate, but Sackheim et al (2001) argued that many patients later relapsed.
Cognitive Approach • Cognitive -1. The mental process of knowing, including aspects such as awareness, perception, reasoning, and judgement. • Atypical behaviour is a result of irrational and negative thinking. • Can treat atypical behaviour by teaching the individual to challenge these thoughts and change the way they perceive situations
Treatments • Replace negative thoughts with positive thoughts: • Eating disorders: • “I am fat no-one will love me if I am fat” • “I am not perfect but people will love me the way I am”
Behaviourist Approach • Actions a result of experiences in life. • Behaviour is learned – Classical/Operant conditioning. • Focuses on behaviour only not on the mind. • Classical Conditioning – Pavlov’s dogs. Behaviour learned through association. • Operant Conditioning – Skinner’s Box. Behaviour learned through consequences. • Observational learning. Bandura’s Social Learning Theory. We learn behaviour by observing others.
Therapies • Aversion Therapy • Systematic Desensitisation • Modelling Therapy
Psychoanalytic Approach • Freud • Atypical behaviour is psychological not physical. • Caused by: • unresolved psychological conflicts. (id, ego superego) • Repressed childhood experiences • Unconscious motivations
Defence Mechanisms • Behaviour-channelling defences • Identification • Displacement • Sublimation • Primary reality - distorting defences • Repression • Denial • Secondary reality-distorting defences • Projection • Reaction formation • Rationalisation
Therapies • Clinical Interviews • Analysis of symbolism • Task: what do you think the following dreams would say about a person’s personality? • Being attacked • Attacking others • Falling from the sky. • Climbing to the sky/flying. • A train going into a tunnel.