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  1. Introduction to UML:Structural and Use Case Modeling Khalid Ishaq

  2. Overview • Tutorial series • Quick tour • Structural modeling • Use case modeling Introduction to UML

  3. Tutorial Series • Lecture 1: Introduction to UML: Structural and Use Case Modeling • Lecture 2: Behavioral Modeling with UML • Lecture 3: Advanced Modeling with UML [Note: This version of the tutorial series is based on OMG UML Specification v. 1.4, UML Revision Task Force recommended final draft, OMG doc# ad/01-02-13.] Introduction to UML

  4. Tutorial Goals • What you will learn: • what the UML is and what is it not • UML’s basic constructs, rules and diagram techniques • how the UML can model large, complex systems • how the UML can specify systems in an implementation-independent manner • how UML, XMI and MOF can facilitate metadata integration • What you will not learn: • Object Modeling 101 • object methods or processes • Metamodeling 101 Introduction to UML

  5. Quick Tour • Why do we model? • What is the UML? • Foundation elements • Unifying concepts • Language architecture • Relation to other OMG technologies Introduction to UML

  6. Why do we model? • Provide structure for problem solving • Experiment to explore multiple solutions • Furnish abstractions to manage complexity • Reduce time-to-market for business problem solutions • Decrease development costs • Manage the risk of mistakes Introduction to UML

  7. The Challenge Tijuana “shantytown”: http://www.macalester.edu/~jschatz/residential.html Introduction to UML

  8. The Vision Fallingwater: http://www.adelaide.net.au/~jpolias/FLW/Images/FallingWater.jpeg Introduction to UML

  9. Why do we model graphically? • Graphics reveal data. • Edward TufteThe Visual Display of Quantitative Information, 1983 • 1 bitmap = 1 megaword. • Anonymous visual modeler Introduction to UML

  10. Quick Tour • The UML is a graphical language for • specifying • visualizing • constructing • documenting the artifacts of software systems • Added to the list of OMG adopted technologies in November 1997 as UML 1.1 • Most recent minor revision is UML 1.3, adopted in November 1999 • Next minor revision will be UML 1.4, planned to be adopted in Q2 2001 • Next major revision will be UML 2.0, planned to be completed in 2002 Introduction to UML

  11. UML Goals • Define an easy-to-learn but semantically rich visual modeling language • Unify the Booch, OMT, and Objectory modeling languages • Include ideas from other modeling languages • Incorporate industry best practices • Address contemporary software development issues • scale, distribution, concurrency, executability, etc. • Provide flexibility for applying different processes • Enable model interchange and define repository interfaces Introduction to UML

  12. OMG UML Evolution From [Kobryn 01a]. Introduction to UML

  13. OMG UML Contributors AonixColorado State University Computer Associates Concept Five Data Access EDS Enea Data Hewlett-Packard IBM I-LogixInLine Software Intellicorp Kabira TechnologiesKlasse Objecten Lockheed Martin Microsoft ObjecTimeOraclePtech OAO Technology SolutionsRational SoftwareReich SAP Softeam Sterling Software Sun Taskon TelelogicUnisys… Introduction to UML

  14. OMG UML 1.4 Specification • UML Summary • UML Semantics • UML Notation Guide • UML Example Profiles • Software Development Processes • Business Modeling • Model Interchange • Model Interchange Using XMI • Model Interchange Using CORBA IDL • Object Constraint Language Introduction to UML

  15. Tutorial Focus: the Language • language = syntax + semantics • syntax = rules by which language elements (e.g., words) are assembled into expressions (e.g., phrases, clauses) • semantics = rules by which syntactic expressions are assigned meanings • UML Notation Guide – defines UML’s graphic syntax • UML Semantics – defines UML’s semantics Introduction to UML

  16. Foundation Concepts • Building blocks • Well-formedness rules Introduction to UML

  17. Building Blocks • The basic building blocks of UML are: • model elements (classes, interfaces, components, use cases, etc.) • relationships (associations, generalization, dependencies, etc.) • diagrams (class diagrams, use case diagrams, interaction diagrams, etc.) • Simple building blocks are used to create large, complex structures • cf. elements, bonds and molecules in chemistry • cf. components, connectors and circuit boards in hardware Introduction to UML

  18. Diagram: Classifier View Introduction to UML

  19. Diagram: Instance View Introduction to UML

  20. Well-Formedness Rules • Well-formed: indicates that a model or model fragment adheres to all semantic and syntactic rules that apply to it. • UML specifies rules for: • naming • scoping • visibility • integrity • execution (limited) • However, during iterative, incremental development it is expected that models will be incomplete and inconsistent. Introduction to UML

  21. Well-Formedness Rules (cont’d) • Example of semantic rule: Class [1] • English: If a Class is concrete, all the Operations of the Class should have a realizing Method in the full descriptor. • OCL:not self.isAbstract implies self.allOperations->forAll (op | self.allMethods->exists (m | m.specification-> includes(op))) Introduction to UML

  22. Well-Formedness Rules (cont’d) • Example of syntactic rules: Class • Basic Notation: A class is drawn as a solid-outline rectangle with three compartments separated by horizontal lines. • Presentation Option: Either or both of the attribute and operation compartments may be suppressed. • Example of syntactic guideline: Class • Style Guideline: Begin class names with an uppercase letter. Introduction to UML

  23. Unifying Concepts • classifier-instance dichotomy • e.g., an object is an instance of a class ORa class is the classifier of an object • specification-realization dichotomy • e.g., an interface is a specification of a class ORa class is a realization of an interface • analysis-time vs. design-time vs. run-time • modeling phases (“process creep”) • usage guidelines suggested, not enforced Introduction to UML

  24. Language Architecture • Metamodel architecture • Package structure Introduction to UML

  25. Metamodel Architecture From [Kobryn 01b]. Introduction to UML

  26. UML Metamodel Layer From [Kobryn 01b]. Introduction to UML

  27. Relationships to Other Modeling Technologies From [Kobryn 01b]. Introduction to UML

  28. Structural Modeling • What is structural modeling? • Core concepts • Diagram tour • When to model structure • Modeling tips • Example: Interface-based design Introduction to UML

  29. What is structural modeling? • Structural model: a view of an system that emphasizes the structure of the objects, including their classifiers, relationships, attributes and operations. Introduction to UML

  30. Structural Modeling: Core Elements Introduction to UML

  31. Structural Modeling: Core Elements(cont’d) ¹ An extension mechanism useful for specifying structural elements. Introduction to UML

  32. Structural Modeling: Core Relationships Introduction to UML

  33. Structural Modeling: Core Relationships(cont’d) Introduction to UML

  34. Structural Diagram Tour • Show the static structure of the model • the entities that exist (e.g., classes, interfaces, components, nodes) • internal structure • relationship to other entities • Do not show • temporal information • Kinds • static structural diagrams • class diagram • object diagram • implementation diagrams • component diagram • deployment diagram Introduction to UML

  35. Static Structural Diagrams • Shows a graph of classifier elements connected by static relationships. • kinds • class diagram: classifier view • object diagram: instance view Introduction to UML

  36. Classes Fig. 3-20, UML Notation Guide Introduction to UML

  37. Classes: compartments with names Fig. 3-23, UML Notation Guide Introduction to UML

  38. Classes: method body Fig. 3-24, UML Notation Guide Introduction to UML

  39. Types and Implementation Classes Fig. 3-27, UML Notation Guide Introduction to UML

  40. Interfaces: Shorthand Notation Fig. 3-29, UML Notation Guide Introduction to UML

  41. Interfaces: Longhand Notation Fig. 3-29, UML Notation Guide Introduction to UML

  42. Associations Fig. 3-40, UML Notation Guide Introduction to UML

  43. Association Ends Fig. 3-41, UML Notation Guide Introduction to UML

  44. Ternary Associations Fig. 3-44, UML Notation Guide Introduction to UML

  45. Composition Fig. 3-45, UML Notation Guide Introduction to UML

  46. Composition (cont’d) Fig. 3-45, UML Notation Guide Introduction to UML

  47. Generalization Fig. 3-47, UML Notation Guide Introduction to UML

  48. Generalization Fig. 3-48, UML Notation Guide Introduction to UML

  49. Dependencies Fig. 3-50, UML Notation Guide Introduction to UML

  50. Dependencies Fig. 3-51, UML Notation Guide Introduction to UML