Project for Livelihood Improvement • Overall Goal: Socio-Economic status of Disadvantaged communities enhanced. • Objectives: Coping strategies of poor communities strengthened to improve their livelihood with special reference to women..
Two extreme conditions of the area Condition when there is no rain/ flood water. Condition when there is rain/ flood water Area becomes inaccessible and difficult to get out even in case of emergency
Issues of Rodh Kohi area • Seasonal Droughts. (12 droughts in last 50 years) • Low and erratic rainfall. (135mm to 250mm)
Continued………. • Soil erosion due to high intensity of flood. • High maintenance cost of the flood irrigation system (Earthen Bund).
Continued……. • Unavailability of drinking water for human & livestock. • Under ground water is saline • Rules (Kuliyat & Riwajat-e- Abapashi) are not followed.
Water management issues • Distribution and control system of flood water. • Depth of water application/ No. of irrigation/ season.
Continued…… • Uneven land leveling status. • High sediments in flood irrigation channels (Rodh).
Potential to address water issues. • Efficient use of water for crop production and drinking purpose (Improvement in conveyance system). B. Strengthening of water users association for equitable distribution. • Introduction of dry land farming technologies (incl. rain water harvesting etc) that improve production.
Project interventions • Water Ponds Rehabilitation for Human & Livestock drinking purposes. • Introduction of low cost sand filter at house hold level.
Improvement in distribution and control of flood water • Improvement in water convenience system in collaboration with spate irrigation system project. (Diversion structure) • Improvement in control of water at field in collaboration with spate irrigation system project. (field inlet)
Continued…….. • Rain Water Harvesting for trees/ crops production through artificial slopes. • Homestead vegetable production and plantation through Pitcher irrigation techniques.
Project other interventions • Conducted a Study to review the Social aspect of the Rodh Kohi Irrigation system • Conducted a study to evaluate water status in the system • Study in progress to determine appropriate depth of water applied during the flood • Testing the ponds storage capacity in relation to population and time
Objectives Technical study • To determine discharges of perennial and flood water of the selected Zam and Rodhs during flood season (July-September, 2004). • To find the depth of irrigation water applied to each selected fields. • To determine the depth of deposited sediment in the selected fields.
Chaudhwan Zam Daraban Zam Gud Velehri Gud Lohra Terkhoba Study Area
Conclusions • Flood water availability decreases from upstream to down stream in both Zam, farmers at downstream gets water twice out of ten years. • About 84% of the respondents mentioned that the amount of flood water availability has decreased during the past ten years. • In project area 67 percent of the total respondents received Rodh-Kohi water last year(2003), while that year(2004) 79% got flood water.
Due to limited water supply the cropping intensity is very low (single crop). • The yield of crops at downstream of the Rodh is relatively low as compared to the upstream due to limited water availability. • For perennial (Kala Pani) stream water management the organization set up is strong as compared to flood water management. • In general there exists an informal Water User’s Association for management of flood water but has weaken with time especially at the downstream of the Rodh due to unreliable flood water availability
Average depth of flood water applied by farmers ranges from 40 to 80 cm, due to large and unleveled fields the depth of water is relatively more than required. • Average depth of deposited sediment in the field ranges from about 2 to 3.5 cm per flood. • Infiltration rate of water in fields ranges from 0.2 to 1.2 mm /hr, which is relatively low and water stands in the fields for longer period and significant amount of water lost in evaporates.
About two-third of the respondents reported that water distribution laws are followed. • Most of the respondents mentioned that the Rodh-Kohi system should be improved by improving the conveyance system. • Sixty-one percent of total respondents replied that they attend regular WUAs meetings which shows that people in this part of project area are more keen to involve themselves in the system improvement and important decision-making regarding efficient use of water.
RECOMMENDATIONS • Mobilizations and Capacity Building of Communities for Management of irrigation system should be encouraged. • Integrated approach for the identification, planning, and implementation of interventions should be explored bu involving different stakeholders. • Water harvesting through catchments improvements, ponds and other structures at cost effective way for solving drinking water problems in Rodh Kohi area should be explored. • Low cost water management structures for control of flood water should be developed at field as well as Gundi/Sod level.
Community participation, mobilization and their capacity building should be ensured for equitable water distribution. • Old ponds at tail of Rodhs should be rehabilitated and their capacity should be enhanced for steady water supply. • Communities should be mobilized and organized first at village then to gundi / sod level and later should be extended to Rodh as well as Zam level for overall equitable water distribution. • For increasing crops yield and moisture conservation some agronomic interventions like deep tillage, improved seed etc be tested through farmer centered approaches.
Lessons learnt • People centered & demand driven approaches work successfully. • Poor Peoples are a potential to work with, not a problem.
Prepared by Munawar Khattak PLI South