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Strategic Management/ Business Policy. Power Point Set #1 EMBA 544. The Wisdom of Choice:. “To try and fail is at least to learn; to fail to try is to suffer the inestimable loss of what might have been.” Chester Barnard, The Functions of the Executive. What Is Strategic Management About?.

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strategic management business policy

Strategic Management/Business Policy

Power Point Set #1

EMBA 544

the wisdom of choice
The Wisdom of Choice:
  • “To try and fail is at least to learn; to fail to try is to suffer the inestimable loss of what might have been.”
          • Chester Barnard, The Functions of the Executive
what is strategic management about
What Is Strategic Management About?
  • Understanding how firms create, capture, and sustain competitive advantage.
  • Analyzing strategic business situations and formulating strategic plans.
  • Implementing strategy and organizing the firm for strategic success.
strategy relates a business to itself and its competitive environment









National/Int’l Economies








Strategy Relates A Business To Itself and Its Competitive Environment



& Capabilities


The Role of Strategy In Business is to Generate and Sustain Value via the Linkages Between Position, Resources, and Organization
  • Scope of the Firm:
    • Geographic Scope
    • Choice of businesses (corporate portfolio analysis)
    • Product Market Positioning within a business
    • Vertical integration decisions
  • Tangible Resources
    • e.g., physical capital
  • Intangible Resources
    • e.g., trademarks, “know-how”
  • Organizational Capabilities
    • e.g., routines and standard operating procedures
  • Structure
    • Formal Definition of authority
    • Conflict Resolution
  • Systems
    • Rules, Routines, Evaluation and rewards
  • Processes
    • Informal communication, networks, recruitment
definitions of strategy
Definitions of Strategy
  • “The term “strategy” is intended to focus on the inter-dependence of the adversaries’ decisions and on their expectations about each other’s behavior.”
        • Thomas Schelling The Strategy of Conflict
  • “Strategy can be defined as the determination of the basic long-term goals and objectives of an enterprise, and the adoption of courses of action and the allocation of resources necessary for carrying out those goals.”
        • Alfred D. Chandler Strategy and Structure
defining the business the starting point of strategy
Defining the Business: The Starting Point of Strategy
  • Example: Fall of the Railroads
    • “They let others take customers away from them because they assumed themselves to be in the railroad business rather than in the transportation business. The reason they defined their industry wrong was because they were railroad oriented instead of transport oriented; they were product oriented instead of customer oriented.”
          • Theodore Levitt “Market Myopia”
mission statement and goals
Mission Statement and Goals
  • It is the function of the top management team to provide the firm’s purpose or “strategic intent.”
          • Chester Barnard The Functions of the Executive
          • Alfred Sloan My Years with General Motors
    • Komatsu ---> “Encircle Caterpillar”
    • Canon ---> “Beat Xerox”
    • Kodak ---> “Be the leader in the imaging sector”
    • Coca Cola ---> “To put a Coke within ‘arms reach’ of every consumer in the world.”
fundamental question of the choice of goals planning for what purpose s
Fundamental question of the choice of Goals: Planning for what purpose(s)?
  • Profitability (net profits)
  • Efficiency (low costs)
  • Market Share
  • Growth (e.g., increase in total assets, sales, etc.)
  • Shareholder Wealth (dividends plus stock price appreciation)
  • Utilization of Resources (e.g., ROE, ROI)
  • Reputation
  • Contribution to Stakeholders (e.g., employees, society)
  • Survival (avoid bankruptcy)
the manager s role in balancing expectations
The Manager’s role in balancing expectations
  • Business Roundtable:
    • “Balancing the shareholder’s expectations of maximum return against other priorities is one of the fundamental problems confronting corporate management.”
    • Stakeholders are the individuals and groups who can affect, and are affected by, the strategic outcomes achieved and who have enforceable claims on a firm’s performance.
    • Understanding corporate strategy means understanding the competing value claims of multiple stakeholders.
the manager s role in balancing expectations1
The Manager’s role in balancing expectations
  • There are inherent conflicts of goals within the firm. In The Reckoning, David Halberstam documents the hard fought goal disparities between MBAs on Ford Motor Company’s finance staff, who stressed strategies with clear, quantifiable, profit-maximizing prospects, and the engineering-oriented “product” people, who urged an accelerated pace of design improvement and were more inclined to accept added cost to improve product quality.
a key performance measure sustainable competitive advantage
A Key Performance Measure:Sustainable Competitive Advantage
  • For a company, the definition of success is superior economic performance.
  • To achieve superior economic performance, a firm has to create a sustainable competitive advantage (SCA).
  • SCA is achieved by a value-creating strategy that cannot be (easily) duplicated.
key drivers of value creation and sustainable competitive advantage
Key Drivers of Value Creation and Sustainable Competitive Advantage:
  • Generating value can be accomplished through:
    • REVENUE drivers
    • COST drivers
    • RISK drivers
the levels of strategy
The Levels of Strategy

Corporate - General Electric

Business - Home Appliances

Functional - e.g., Production

corporate strategy
Corporate Strategy
  • At the corporate level, value creation can occur if the individual parts of a firm are integrated into a coherent whole.
  • Corporate strategy is the way a company creates value through the configuration and coordination of its multi-market activities.
concepts and skills that we will develop for this course in strategic management
Concepts and Skills that we will develop for this course in Strategic Management:
  • Industry Analysis
  • Firm Analysis - Resources and Capabilities
  • Business Strategy
  • Competitive Dynamics
  • Corporate Strategy
summary take aways
Summary “Take-aways”:
  • Providing PURPOSE is an important function for the executive.
  • One important purpose is to CREATE VALUE.
  • Value creation can lead to SUSTAINABLE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE.