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CNT-FED Part I Yesterday and Today. Min Hee Cho , Changhwan Shin, Wookhyun Kwon. Roadmap. Roadmap. Part I : Yesterday and Today * Display technology summary CRT  LCD  FED * Current CNT FED technology and limitation. Part II : New technology * AM (Active matrix) CNT-FED

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slide1

CNT-FED Part IYesterday and Today

Min Hee Cho, Changhwan Shin, Wookhyun Kwon

roadmap

Roadmap

Roadmap

Part I : Yesterday and Today

* Display technology summary

CRT  LCD  FED

* Current CNT FED technology and limitation

Part II : New technology

* AM (Active matrix) CNT-FED

* Transparent CNT-FED for HUD (Head up display)

Part III: Application & marketing strategy

* Target application (HUD)

* Marketing strategy

* Business Plan

outline for cnt fed part i
Outline for CNT-FED Part I

1. Introduction - CNT & Application

- Depending Champion : LCD

- Quick review for FED

2. Technology for FED & CNT

2.1 FED development

- from CRT to FED

- Pixel control in FED

- FED history

- Performance competition

2.2 BLU (Back Light Unit)

- Local Dimming

- LCD vs BLU

2.3 CNT merit

- The technology for CNT emitter

- Issues in CNT emitter

- Common issue

3.Summary

outline
Outline

1. Introduction - CNT & Application

- Depending Champion : LCD

- Quick review for FED

2. Technology for FED & CNT

2.1 FED development

- from CRT to FED

- Pixel control in FED

- FED history

- Performance competition

2.2 BLU (Back Light Unit)

- Local Dimming

- LCD vs BLU

2.3 CNT merit

- The technology for CNT emitter

- Issues in CNT emitter

- Common issue

3.Summary

1 introduction cnt
1. Introduction - CNT -

Single-walled CNT Double-walled CNT Multiwalled CNT

Diameter : 1/100,000 of a hair (1-100nm)

Thermal conductivity : 10 times of diamond

Strength : more than 2 times of spider’s thread

Ultra high current densities : 1010 A/cm2 (Cu : 107 A/cm2)

quick review for fed
Quick review for FED

FED : Field Emission Display

Why FED !

* low power (30~50% of LCD,PDP)

* very high contrast level

* light weight (compared to LCD)

* very slim (compared to LCD)

* be able to make up for loss pixel

 dream of display !!

outline9
Outline

1. Introduction - CNT & Application

- Depending Champion : LCD

- Quick review for FED

2. Technology for FED & CNT

2.1 FED development

- from CRT to FED

- Pixel control in FED

- FED history

- Performance competition

2.2 BLU (Back Light Unit)

- Local Dimming

- LCD vs BLU

2.3 CNT merit

- The technology for CNT emitter

- Issues in CNT emitter

- Common issue

3.Summary

2 technology for fed cnt
2. Technology for FED & CNT

from CRT to FED : CRT

* CRT operation

Powered by an electron gun

 Thermionic emission

(Boiling" them off a metal filament)

 Scanned across the screen

* CRT advantage

- high contrast levels

- very fast response times

 Now disappear…

Because of Thickness & Power

from crt to fed fed structure
from CRT to FED : FED structure

cones (Spindt tip)

* Main difference

: Many electron guns

: Sharp tip : Field emission

 Thermionic emission

vs Field emission (FED)

* Emitter

: field electron sources to provide

electrons

 strike colored phosphor 

 produce a color image.* In order to maximize performance : Carbon Nanotube (CNT) technology

bad pixel in lcd

Normal

Bad Pixel

Bad Pixel in LCD

Computer Synthetic beauty

pixel control in fed
Pixel control in FED

So tiny and many tips :

in some pixels being inoperable

 find the dead emitters

 corrected by slightly increasing the pulse

(make up for the loss )

Technical Advantage :  increase yield (reduce the pixel loss)

fed history
FED history

1991

1997

2000

spindt type was researched

CNT FED

Micro tip Full color FED

FED systems started

2003

2004

~Now

Prepare CNT FED

mass production

: But not yet

CNT BLU

-38” CNT FED TV

performance competition
Performance competition

The performance should be satisfied to be a future FPD TV.

Major requirement

• High Contrast

• Wide Viewing Angle

• High Resolution

• Color Gamut

• Fast Response

• Resolution

•Energy Saving

★:Excellent

☆:Very Good

◎:Good

○:Intermediate

outline17
Outline

1. Introduction - CNT & Application

- Depending Champion : LCD

- Quick review for FED

2. Technology for FED & CNT

2.1 FED development

- from CRT to FED

- Pixel control in FED

- FED history

- Performance competition

2.2 BLU (Back Light Unit)

- Local Dimming

- LCD vs BLU

2.3 CNT merit

- The technology for CNT emitter

- Issues in CNT emitter

- Common issue

3.Summary

2 2 blu back light unit

Use the Current LCD technolgy

: Color gamut &Uniformity

Use the light source in FED

: Brightness & Efficiency

Back light

2.2 BLU (Back Light Unit)

The advantage of

LCD + FED

lcd vs blu
LCD vs BLU

CNT is used for an electron emitter in both CNT-FED and CNT-BLU

with many common technologies.

Fast motion

Blinking BLU

Dynamic BLU

Natural color

Local Dimming

outline21
Outline

1. Introduction - CNT & Application

- Depending Champion : LCD

- Quick review for FED

2. Technology for FED & CNT

2.1 FED development

- from CRT to FED

- Pixel control in FED

- FED history

- Performance competition

2.2 BLU (Back Light Unit)

- Local Dimming

- LCD vs BLU

2.3 CNT merit

- The technology for CNT emitter

- Issues in CNT emitter

- Common issue

3.Summary

2 3 cnt merit
2.3 CNT merit

CNTs

1> Small tip radius

: The efficiency of the field emitters

2> High aspect ratio

3> High conductivity

Materials and Design 28 (2007)

the technology for cnt emitter
The technology for CNT emitter

Paste emitter

Directly grown emitter

catalyst dot

PECVD

Uniform CNT length

/ Possibility for higher resolution FED

Low cost / Large area

common issue
Common issue

Due to

- Inter-pixel uniformity

- Life time

outline26
Outline

1. Introduction - CNT & Application

- Depending Champion : LCD

- Quick review for FED

2. Technology for FED & CNT

2.1 FED development

- from CRT to FED

- Pixel control in FED

- FED history

- Performance competition

2.2 BLU (Back Light Unit)

- Local Dimming

- LCD vs BLU

2.3 CNT merit

- The technology for CNT emitter

- Issues in CNT emitter

- Common issue

3.Summary

summary for part i
Summary for Part I

◆ CNT FED picture quality is quite comparable to conventional LCD or PDP device

◆ CNT Backlight have superior capacity to express high image quality such as high contrast

and low power consumption

◆ CNT is most promising material for FED

◆ There still remain some obstacles

: High voltage stability , Lifetime ,

Uniform fabrication , Large area process

slide28

CNT-FED Part II

New Technology for CNT-FED

Min Hee Cho, Changhwan Shin, Wookhyun Kwon

slide29

Outline

1. New approach for the current CNT-FED:

AM (Active-Matrix) CNT-FED

2. Transparent CNT-FED for HUD:

SWNT-SOG composite for transparent FED

slide30

Outline

1. New approach for the current CNT-FED:

AM (Active-Matrix) CNT-FED

2. Transparent CNT-FED for HUD:

SWNT-SOG composite for transparent FED

slide31

Current CNT-FED

  • Why CNT?
  • nano-size tip, high-aspect-ratio, high stability ideal field-emission material
  • 2. Current CNT emitter structures

Spindt-type CNT emitter fabricated by paste method

Under-gate-type CNT emitter fabricated by paste method

slide32

Technical Issues

#0: no high-efficient low-voltage phosphor

accelerating voltage > 7kV; spacer charge

#1: no ideal triode emitter structure

#2: hard to implement inter-pixel uniformity

#3: Lifetime is not guaranteed (due to heat)

slide33

Alternative technology: fabrication

Other issues: 1) Difficulty to implement the ideal triode structure with CNT

2) Spacer; high accelerating voltage required.

slide34

New approach for the current CNT-FED:

AM(Active-Matrix)-CNT-FED

  • Amorphous-silicon TFT (a-Si TFT) used for the switching device in LCD is utilized to control the CNT emitters in the AM-CNT FED.- a-SI TFT integrated with the cathode-plate; Address TFT & Driver TFTs
  • TMG; gating to induce electric-field emission and prevent anode’s electric-field, integrating e-beams
  • Anode plate with R/G/B phosphor, and Spacers supporting vacuum-packed emitters
  • - Operating VDD only depends on TFT characteristics, due to signal inputs on G/S of the TFTs

Tapered Macro-Gate

AM-CNT FED panel view (top), and its cross-sectional view (bottom)

AM-CNT FED panel view (top), and its cross-sectional view (bottom)

slide35

Possibility of the AM-CNT FED

No high-efficient low-voltage phosphor  Accelerating voltage (> 7kV) required.

Alternative: TMG can obtain the required accelerating voltage of the anode.

Emitted e-beams can be integrated at the anode’s phosphor by TMG

Prevent cross-talk

Low IOFF at higher VDS

Saturation region > 150V; less σ(Iop) uniformity

Luminescence vs. anode voltage at the TMG-CNT emitter

Transfer (top) and output (bottom) characteristic of the series-connected a-Si TFT

slide36

Outline

1. New approach for the current CNT-FED:

AM (Active-Matrix) CNT-FED

2. Transparent CNT-FED for HUD:

SWNT-SOG composite for transparent FED

slide37

Transparent CNT-FED

Tin-Oxide-coated glass substrate used to synthesize the SWNT

Tin-oxide-coated glass

The SWNT film was purified, by ethanol treatment, to increase the adhesion of SWNTs with the substrate.

Cleaning

** Arc discharge method to synthesize SWNT

The SWNT film was oxidized, to burn out amorphous carbon and oxidize the metal catalyst.

The purified SWNT film spin coated with SOG solution, then heated to remove moisture and solvent.

The film was exposed out of SOG by etching the top surface of the composite film in diluted HF solution.

Flowchart of fabrication process for the transparent CNT-FET based on a composite of SWNT and SOG.

slide38

Summary

- AM-CNT-FED can overcome the current CNT-FED technical issues.

- Transparent CNT-FED can be fabricated cheaply and demonstrated.

Reference

[1] ETRI annual research report

[2] Nguyen V. Quy et al., “SWNT-SOG composite for transparent field emission device,” Journal of Crystal Growth, Sep. 2008.

slide39

CNT-FED Part III

Applications and Marketing Strategy

Min Hee Cho, Changhwan Shin, Wookhyun Kwon

slide40

Outline

  • Applications
  • CNTHead-up Display (HUD)
  • Marketing Strategy for CNT-HUD
    • Market Size
    • Target Customers
    • SWOT Analysis
    • Investment
  • Conclusion
slide42

Older Head-Up Display

  • Military and Civilian Aircraft

< Targeting>

< Navigation for night landing>

  • Major technologies
    • Laser Hologram
slide43

Head-Up Display

Automobile

  • HUD in BMW 7 series
  • Mounted on the dashboard
  • Projecting information onto the windshield
  • Available only for luxury cars
  • Major technologies
    • TFT-LCD projection
    • LED projection
slide44

Drawbacks of Old Technologies

  • Laser Hologram
  • Dashboard Projection
slide45

CNT-FED technology for HUD

“The first HUDs, failed to wow the consumer as hoped.”

“Solid-state electronics new to HUD have produced dramatic improvement”

  • Limited functionality
  • Lack of clarity
  • Insufficient brightness
  • More clarity
  • More color
  • Brighter display
  • CNT-FED technology can provide
    • Transparency
    • Higher brightness
    • Clarity
    • Functionality
slide46

Advanced HUD in Airplane

  • 200% lighter and smaller
  • Support TV like images
  • Enhance pilot comfort
    • – Increased head clearance
    • – Increased volume of head motion box
    • – Pilot’s head can’t obscure image
slide47

HUD in Entire Front Windshield of Car

  • Telemetric Display can provide an intelligent driving experience!
    • Traffic information
    • Navigation
    • Video phone
    • Safety warning
slide48

Market Size

HUD Market to reach $400 million by 2012

EE Times (21/Jun/2007)

A new research brief from ABI Research has predicted that head-up display (HUD) solutions that display key information in the driver's line of sight, reducing the need to look away from the road ahead, will comprise a Rs.1,634.67 crore ($400 million) market by 2012. The HUD solution addresses raised concerns related to assortment of applications in today's cars, from navigation to information and entertainment that pulls the driver's attention away from the basic task of driving.

  • Demand for automobile HUD is rapidly growing.
  • The real market exceeds the expectation.
slide50

Target Customers

Airplane Makers

Automotive Component Suppliers

slide51

S.W.O.T. Analysis

STRENTH

WEAKNESS

  • Transparency
  • Higher brightness
  • CRT like images
  • Small market size
  • Reliability and Lifetime
  • Yield

 AM-CNT technology

OPPORTUNITY

THREAT

  • Growing market
  • Few competitors
  • High price market
    • Airplane
    • Luxury car
  • Old solution providers
    • Laser hologram
    • Projection
  • Major company
    • Patent protection
    • I.P. provider
slide52

Development Plane (Phase I)

1st Investment

(Seed Money)

+ $ 1000K (1M)

Patents

10 patents x $30K = - $300K

Proto-type

- $ 600K

Promotion

- $ 100K

2nd Investment

from Buyers

> $ 20 M

slide53

Conclusion

  • CNT-FED is promising technology for future display, but this has limitations
  • To overcome these limitation, we introduce AM-CNT-FED.
  • To get product differentiation, we introduce transparent display.
  • HUD application is good target market to avoid high risks at the begging stage.
  • We are finding angels who invest seed money!