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  1. Chapters 28 More About the Comma English Brushup, 5E John Langan

  2. Exclude commas after SHORT introductory material. Example: Afterward the scientist figured out what had gone wrong with the experiment. Avoid Unnecessary Commas Commas are also not needed to set off a word group that identifies another word in the sentence. Incorrect: • The lab assistant, that discovered the mistake, was given an award. Revised: • The lab assistant that discovered the mistake was given an award.

  3. USE COMMAS • On both sides of words that interrupt the flow of thoughtin a sentence. • Between two complete thoughtsconnected byand, but, for, or, nor, so, yetand otherjoining words. • To set off short expressions and people’s names. • In dates, addresses,letter-writingand related informal situations. • Between two interchangeable descriptive words.

  4. USE COMMAS Use commas around words interrupting the flow of thought. Interrupting words are set off by commas. If you remove the words from the sentence and it still makes sense, the words are interrupters. Such nonessential information is set off by commas. • Examples: • Agriculture, especially the growing of cotton, was vital to the South’s economy. • Sometimes American civilians, who actually picnicked in the battle areas to watch the fighting, were trampled by retreating soldiers.

  5. USE COMMAS Use a comma between complete thoughts connected by a joining word. Examples: • Holidays are supposed to be full of merriment, yet they are also very stressful. • We always exchange presents on Christmas Eve, for that is our family tradition.

  6. Use commas to set off short expressions such as yes, no, and well. Example: Yes, cell phone use is more common now than it was ten years ago. Use commas to set off people’s names. Example: Have you had enough to eat, Steve? USE COMMAS

  7. Use commas with dates, addresses, numbers, and with the openings and closings of letters. Examples: The armistice of World War I was November 11, 1918. There were 270,000 letters addressed to New York, NY. Dear Elise, Sincerely, USE COMMAS

  8. USE COMMAS Use commas between two interchangeable descriptive words. • Examples: • Modern artists are known for their imaginative, innovative artwork. • They often had difficult, miserable lives.

  9. DO NOT USE COMMAS • Between a subject and a verb. • He, painted every day. • Between a verb and its object. • He plastered, the walls with finished works. • Before a prepositional phrase. • Throughout, his career, his landscapes were looked upon most favorably. • Before andin a compound subject or verb. • He, and his colleagues drew, and painted many forests. • Before that(unless an interrupter follows). • He immortalized the lands, that he loved most.