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Ch 6 Exploring Four Empires of Mesopotamia

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Ch 6 Exploring Four Empires of Mesopotamia. Introduction The Akkadian Empire Life Under Akkadian Rule Hammurabi and the Babylonian Empire Life in the Babylonian Empire The Assyrian Empire Life Under the Assyrians The Neo-Babylonian Empire Life in the Neo-Babylonian Empire Summary.

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ch 6 exploring four empires of mesopotamia
Ch 6 Exploring Four Empires of Mesopotamia
  • Introduction
  • The Akkadian Empire
  • Life Under Akkadian Rule
  • Hammurabi and the Babylonian Empire
  • Life in the Babylonian Empire
  • The Assyrian Empire
  • Life Under the Assyrians
  • The Neo-Babylonian Empire
  • Life in the Neo-Babylonian Empire
  • Summary
  • City-states of Mesopotamia never united
  • Vulnerable to attacks by stronger groups
  • 2300 BCE Akkadians conquered Sumer
  • Made the Sumerian city -states into an empire
    • Empire is a large territory where several groups of people are ruled by a single powerful leader or government
the akkadian empire
The Akkadian Empire
  • Origin
    • They came from northern Mesopotamia
    • Led by Sargon
  • First ruler
    • Sargon
      • strong king
      • strong general
    • created his empire through powerful military strategies
      • assembled large army
      • soldiers fought in tight formations
      • soldiers carrying shields stood at the front of the formation
      • Soldiers carry spears stood behind them extending their spears between the shields
    • died in very old age
    • Created the world's first empire
  • Control
    • Destroyed the walls of the cities
    • Made sure the governors of city-states loyal to him
    • First king to demand that his sons rule after his death
life under akkadian rule
Life Under Akkadian Rule
  • Rule
    • Sargon ruled 56 years
    • City of Agade in northern Mesopotamia - capital
      • built with tributes collected from the conquered
      • Became a cultural center
      • one of the richest and most powerful cities in the world
  • Culture
    • Sumerian culture continued
      • irrigation techniques still used to farm
      • Used Sumerian cuneiform writing
      • Worshiped the same gods and goddesses (different names
      • Religion central to social order
      • Kings continued to rule in the name of the gods
    • Akkadian cultural achievements
      • Akkadian language eventually replaced Sumerian language
      • Known for three-dimensional sculptures
        • Relief sculptures on carved stones are called steles
          • Famous example is Victory Stele
            • Created to celebrate a military victory by Sargon's grandson, King Naram-Sin
      • Sargon hoped empire would last 1,000 years
        • Empire grew weaker and weaker
        • After 200 years the Akkadian Empire fell to invaders from the north
hammurabi and the babylonian empire
Hammurabi and the Babylonian Empire
  • Hammurabi
    • Next ruler to unite Mesopotamia
    • King of Babylon, a small city-state in central Mesopotamia
  • Hammurabi's Code
    • Written between 1792 and 1750 BCE
    • Unified empire and preserved order
    • Laws based on Hammurabi's authority and the word of the gods
    • Written on a stele and placed in a temple for all to see
    • Examples
      • covered many situations
        • trade
        • payment for work
        • marriage
        • divorce
      • punishments
        • stealing
        • causing injury
          • builder sold a poorly built house that collapsed and killed its owner could be put to death
          • builder wold a poorly built house that collapsed and killed its owners son, the builder's son could be put to death
    • First code of laws applied to everyone

Hammurabi's code of laws was one of the ancient worlds first attempts to establish a common set of laws, but more importantly, it was the first law code to be displayed in public for all to see.  Hammurabi had his code published on six foot tall stele explaining why he had the power to rule and what the 282 laws were.  By displaying the code to the people, Hammurabi gave them a sense of justice and an understanding of what actions were appropriate.

life in the babylonian empire
Life in the Babylonian Empire
  • Hammurabi worked to unite his people
  • Religion
    • Babylonian god, Marduk, supreme over other gods
  • Public works
    • built roads
    • created a postal service
  • Business
    • Irrigation systems kept working properly
    • City of Babylon became an important center of trade
      • traded grain and woven cloth
      • received wood, gold, silver, precious gems, and livestock
    • Arts and crafts flourished
      • craftsmen used materials traded from distant lands
      • Writers wrote historical poems that survive to this day
  • Society
    • unusually fair for its time
    • laws treated different classes differently
      • slaves had some rights
        • could work for someone other than owner and keep wages
        • Could buy their freedom
      • women had more rights
        • fathers chose their husbands
        • women could own property
        • keep money of their own
the assyrian empire
The Assyrian Empire
  • Rise of Power
    • Assyria was north of Babylon
    • Conquered by Hammurabi
    • Rose to power around 900 BCE
    • Rulers began training soldiers for war
    • With trained army they began to expand their territory
  • Achievements
    • New weapons
      • perfected the use of horse
      • used iron weapons in battle
    • Strategies
      • siege warfare
        • siege - an army camps outside a city and attacks it over and over again until the city falls
      • use of battering rams
        • long poles on wheels used for punching holes in walls
      • built moveable towers
        • rolled up to city's walls and allowed the enemy to climb over the walls
      • ruthless
        • more entire populations
        • spread tales of cruelty to frighten their enemies
          • cut off heads of enemy leaders and force defeated soldiers to march barefoot wearing their leaders' heads around their necks
life under the assyrians
Life Under the Assyrians
  • Religion
    • important in social and political order
    • Kings had to obey the gods
  • Kings
    • believed to be special beings
    • lived in beautiful palaces
  • Citizens
    • farmed the land
    • dug canals to irrigate their land
    • built some of the earliest aqueducts
  • Craftspeople
    • known for their two-dimensional sculptures called bas-reliefs
    • used ivory to decorate thrones, beds, chairs, and doors
  • End of Empire
    • last 300 years
    • stretched from Egypt to the Persian Gulf
    • Nineveh plundered by a combined arm of Babylonians, Scythians, and Medes.
the neo babylonian empire
The Neo-Babylonian Empire
  • Regain Control
    • Defeated Nineveh to regain control over Mesopotamia
    • Neo means new
  • Nebuchadrezzar II
    • Most famous king
    • Ruthless military leader
    • reigned from 605 to 562 BCE
    • Expanded Empire
      • drove Egyptians out of Syria
      • Conquered part of Canaan, the home of the Hebrews
        • carried them off to Babylon
    • Kept Babylon safe
      • built inner and outer walls around the city
      • Towers placed on the walls for archers
      • Moat was dug around the outer wall and filled with water
life in the neo babylonian empire
Life in the Neo-Babylonian Empire
  • Architecture
    • 605 - 562 BCE city's ziggurat rebuilt
      • Called "House of the Platform Between Heaven and Earth"
    • Palace
      • decorated with gardens
      • became knows as the Hanging Gardens of Babylon
      • gardens planted on rooftops and tall terraces
      • watering system kept the garden fresh and green
      • one of the great wonders of the ancient world
  • mathematics and astronomy
    • created the first sundial, a device for telling time using the sun
    • made discoveries that led to a 60 minute hour and 7 day week
  • 4 empires
    • achievements
    • problems
  • Outside Mesopotamia, other cultures developed
    • Egyptians
    • Kush
    • Hebrews