Ancient Civilizations of the AmericasLecture 11 The Basin of Mexico in the Early Classic
The Culture of Teotihuacan • The Political System • “Arrival” (entrada) of Siyaj K’ak (“Fire Born”) at El Perú (Guatemala) on Jan. 23rd, 378 AD. • at Tikal (Guatemala) on Jan. 31st 378 AD. • Chak Tok Ich’aak, king of Tikal, “enters the water” (dies) on the same day. Tikal monuments are destroyed.
Siyaj K’ak’ installs a Teotihuacano leader,at Uaxactun, Tikal in 379, at Bejuca in 381, and at Rio Azul in 383, and possibly at Palenque. Tikal Stela 32 The Marcador text at Tikal refers to Spearthrower Owl, who’s date of accession is given in 374 AD.
Leader installed at Tikal is a son of Spearthrower Owl named Yax Nuun Ayiin. Siyaj K’ak’ rules as regent. The Marcador from Tikal, dated to 413 AD.
Stela 31, Tikal Mosaic monster mask atlatl Spearthrower Owl’s death is given as 439 AD. Flexible shield with Tlaloc image
Foreign influences at Teotihuacan Fragment of Mayan hieroglyphic text – deity impersonation. Compound possibly occupied by Maya
From the Plaza of the Moon Teotihuacan’s Religion Gods: The Great Goddess Mural from Tepantitla
Pyramid of the Sun • Originally excavated and reconstructed by LeopoldoBatres. • Constructed over a cave that ends in four lobes. Pyramid construction began 100 AD. • Consists of four stages, 63m high. • Caches have been recently discovered.
Xipe Totec The Flayed One
World-renowned Mesoamerican religion expert on assignment at Teotihuacan in 1964 Jaguar eating a human heart
Teotihuacano Markets: The Great Marketplace The Merchant’s Barrio Circular dwellings High frequency of Veracruz-style pottery The Oaxacan Barrio Tlailotlacan AD 300-650
Craft Production during the Middle Horizon 200-750 AD • Teotihuacan is organized into compounds. • Craft production is localized in compounds 600 workshops found to date 12% of the cities’ population is involved in obsidian production
Teotihuacan’s Collapse Teotihuacan’s influence on centers beyond the basin of Mexico had ended by 600 AD. The city center was destroyed around AD 700. A much reduced population continued to exist for another two centuries in the city, a phase called Coyotlatelco. The collapse could have been brought on by deforestation (to make plaster) or increased aridity.