Ancient Civilizations of the Americas Lecture 11 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Ancient Civilizations of the Americas Lecture 11

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  1. Ancient Civilizations of the AmericasLecture 11 The Basin of Mexico in the Early Classic

  2. The Culture of Teotihuacan • The Political System • “Arrival” (entrada) of Siyaj K’ak (“Fire Born”) at El Perú (Guatemala) on Jan. 23rd, 378 AD. • at Tikal (Guatemala) on Jan. 31st 378 AD. • Chak Tok Ich’aak, king of Tikal, “enters the water” (dies) on the same day. Tikal monuments are destroyed.

  3. Siyaj K’ak’ installs a Teotihuacano leader,at Uaxactun, Tikal in 379, at Bejuca in 381, and at Rio Azul in 383, and possibly at Palenque. Tikal Stela 32 The Marcador text at Tikal refers to Spearthrower Owl, who’s date of accession is given in 374 AD.

  4. Leader installed at Tikal is a son of Spearthrower Owl named Yax Nuun Ayiin. Siyaj K’ak’ rules as regent. The Marcador from Tikal, dated to 413 AD.

  5. Stela 31, Tikal Mosaic monster mask atlatl Spearthrower Owl’s death is given as 439 AD. Flexible shield with Tlaloc image

  6. Foreign influences at Teotihuacan Fragment of Mayan hieroglyphic text – deity impersonation. Compound possibly occupied by Maya

  7. Quetzalpapálotl Palace

  8. From the Plaza of the Moon Teotihuacan’s Religion Gods: The Great Goddess Mural from Tepantitla

  9. Nauhtl: Ololiuhqui aka Datura

  10. Bottom portion of Tepantitla mural

  11. Pyramid of the Sun • Originally excavated and reconstructed by LeopoldoBatres. • Constructed over a cave that ends in four lobes. Pyramid construction began 100 AD. • Consists of four stages, 63m high. • Caches have been recently discovered.

  12. Tlaloc

  13. Xipe Totec The Flayed One

  14. World-renowned Mesoamerican religion expert on assignment at Teotihuacan in 1964 Jaguar eating a human heart

  15. Blood Sacrifice

  16. The Potential Languages of Teotihuacan

  17. Teotihuacan symbols

  18. year venus

  19. Teotihuacan Economics: Entrepot Sites/Ports of Trade: Matacapan

  20. Thin Orange Pottery – Made in the Tepexi Region, Puebla

  21. Teotihuacano Markets: The Great Marketplace The Merchant’s Barrio Circular dwellings High frequency of Veracruz-style pottery The Oaxacan Barrio Tlailotlacan AD 300-650

  22. Craft Production during the Middle Horizon 200-750 AD • Teotihuacan is organized into compounds. • Craft production is localized in compounds 600 workshops found to date 12% of the cities’ population is involved in obsidian production

  23. “Theater” Incense braizers were made in the ciudadela.

  24. Teotihuacan’s Collapse Teotihuacan’s influence on centers beyond the basin of Mexico had ended by 600 AD. The city center was destroyed around AD 700. A much reduced population continued to exist for another two centuries in the city, a phase called Coyotlatelco. The collapse could have been brought on by deforestation (to make plaster) or increased aridity.