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Chapter 5. Cash or Liquid Asset Management. Learning Objectives. Manage your cash and understand why you need liquid assets. Automate your savings. Choose from among the different types of financial institutions that provide cash management services.

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Chapter 5

Chapter 5

Cash or Liquid Asset Management

Learning objectives
Learning Objectives

  • Manage your cash and understand why you need liquid assets.

  • Automate your savings.

  • Choose from among the different types of financial institutions that provide cash management services.

  • Compare the various cash management alternatives.

  • Compare rates on the different liquid investment alternatives.

  • Establish and use a checking account.

  • Transfer funds electronically and understand how electronic funds transfers (EFTs) work.

Managing liquid assets
Managing Liquid Assets

  • Cash management is deciding how much to keep in liquid assets and where to keep it.

  • With less regulation and more competition, banks and other financial institutions offer an array of account types and investments.

  • Goal: Pay expenses (including unexpected expenses) without dipping into long-term investments.

Managing liquid assets1
Managing Liquid Assets

  • Cash management means not only making choices from among alternatives, but maintaining and managing the results of those choices.

    • Principle 1: the risk-return trade-off.

  • Liquid assets have little risk and therefore a low expected return.

  • Low risk is important in cash management.

Managing liquid assets2
Managing Liquid Assets

  • Another type of risk associated with keeping liquid assets: the more cash you have, the more you are tempted to spend.

Automating savings pay yourself first
Automating Savings:Pay Yourself First

  • Use cash management alternatives to have savings automatically deducted from your paycheck.

  • Automating your savings means you are less likely to spend that money.

    • Remember Principle 13: Pay yourself first

  • The earlier you start to save, the easier it is to achieve your goals.

    • Remember Principle 2: The time value of money

Financial institutions
Financial Institutions

  • Financial institutions are categorized as:

    • Deposit-type financial institutions – referred to as “banks”

    • Nondeposit-type financial institutions – such as mutual funds and brokerage firms

Banks or deposit type financial institutions
“Banks” or Deposit-Type Financial Institutions

  • Financial institutions that provide traditional checking and savings accounts are called “banks” or deposit-type institutions.

Banks or deposit type financial institutions1
“Banks” or Deposit-Type Financial Institutions

  • Types of “banks”:

    • Commercial Banks

    • Savings and Loan Associations

    • Savings Banks

    • Credit Unions

Banks or deposit type financial institutions2
“Banks” or Deposit-Type Financial Institutions

  • Commercial Banks – offer the widest variety of services including checking and savings accounts, credit cards, safety deposit boxes, and lending.

    • 15,000 commercial banks in 65,000 locations in U.S.

    • Offer online banking.

      • Some banks charge a fee for online banking services.

Banks or deposit type financial institutions3
“Banks” or Deposit-Type Financial Institutions

  • Savings and Loans – S&Ls or “thrifts” were originally established to provide mortgages to depositors.

    • They still play an important role in funding home mortgage loans.

Banks or deposit type financial institutions4
“Banks” or Deposit-Type Financial Institutions

  • Types of S&L’s:

    • Mutual S&L – depositors/owners receive dividends.

    • Corporate S&L – depositors receive interest.

    • 5,000 S&Ls in U.S. with 25,000 offices.

    • Higher interest on savings than commercial banks.

Banks or deposit type financial institutions5
“Banks” or Deposit-Type Financial Institutions

  • Savings Banks – most are depositor-owned and are found in the northeast part of U.S.

    • Are like a mutual S&L because they pay dividends rather than interest.

    • Primary purpose is to provide mortgages to depositors.

Banks or deposit type financial institutions6
“Banks” or Deposit-Type Financial Institutions

  • Credit Unions – not-for-profit cooperatives established by churches, schools, and corporations, opened only to members.

    • Tax-exempt status

    • Pay higher interest rates than commercial banks

    • Lower fees and more convenient locations

    • Loans tend to be at favorable rates.

Nondeposit type financial institutions
Nondeposit-Type Financial Institutions

  • Mutual Fund – investment fund that raises money from investors, pools that money, invests it, and is professionally managed.

Nondeposit type financial institutions1
Nondeposit-Type Financial Institutions

  • Stockbrokerage Firms – offer investments and a wide variety of cash management tools, including financial counseling, credit cards, and their own money market mutual funds.

What to look for in a financial institution
What to Look For in aFinancial Institution

  • Choose among the alternatives by asking:

    • Which financial institution offers the kind of services you need and want?

    • Is your investment safe? Is it insured? Is the financial institution sound?

    • What are the costs and returns associated with the services you want? Are there minimum deposit requirements or hidden fees?

Cash management alternatives
Cash Management Alternatives

  • Cash management alternatives include:

    • Checking Accounts

      • Interest bearing – NOW accounts

      • Non-interest bearing – demand deposits

    • Savings Accounts – time deposit

      • May be required to keep your money deposited for a minimum time period

      • You are guaranteed a fixed return on your deposit.

Cash management alternatives1
Cash Management Alternatives

  • Cash management alternatives include:

    • Money Market Deposit Account (MMDA) – variable interest rates (varies with the current market rate of interest).

    • Certificates of Deposit (CD) - pays a fixed rate of interest while funds are on deposit for a period of time.

      • Trade-off: loss of liquidity vs. higher return.

Money market mutual funds
Money Market Mutual Funds

  • Money Market Mutual Funds (MMMF’s) - an alternative to traditional liquid investments.

    • Draws together the savings of many individuals, investing those funds in large, creditworthy debt.

    • Usually a higher yield than bank money market accounts and includes check writing privileges.

    • Shares are purchased at $1 per share, interest rate changes daily.

Asset management account
Asset Management Account

  • A comprehensive financial services package offered by a brokerage firm, including a checking account, credit card, a MMMF, loans, and brokerage services.

  • Advantages are the coordination of funds flowing in and out of the account, and one consolidated monthly statement.

  • Annual service charge of $50 to $125 and a large minimum balance required.

  • Brokerage firms charge commissions on stock transactions.

U s treasury bills or t bills
U.S. Treasury Bills or T-Bills

  • U.S. Treasury bills, or T-bills, are short-term debt issued by the federal government.

    • Maturities of 3-12 months

    • Minimum denomination of $1,000

    • Very liquid, safe investment

    • Pay less than face value, mature at full face value. Interest in the form of appreciation.

U s series ee bonds
U.S. Series EE Bonds

  • U.S. Series EE bonds are issued by the Treasury with low denominations and variable interest rates.

  • Purchased at half the face value, from $50 to $10,000.

  • Interest accrues until bonds reach face value at maturity.

  • No state or local taxes due, interest is deferred until redeemed.

  • Purchased at a bank, with no commission.

Comparing cash management alternatives
Comparing Cash Management Alternatives

  • Comparable Interest Rates – use the annual percentage yield (APY) to easily compare.

    • To compare interest rates, convert them to some common compounding period.

  • Tax Considerations – taxes affect the real rate of return on investments.

  • Safety – some deposits are insured

    • FDIC insures banks

    • NCUA insures credit unions

    • MMMF – not insured but are invested in a diversified portfolio of government bonds (guaranteed) and short-term corporate bonds

Establishing and using a checking account
Establishing and Using a Checking Account

  • When choosing a financial institution, consider:

    • Cost (monthly fee, minimum balance, charge per check, balance-dependent scaled fees)

    • Convenience (near your home, ATMs, direct deposit, safety deposit boxes, overdraft protection)

    • Consideration (want personal attention)

  • Balancing your checking account – compare monthly statement with register, then reconcile.

The check clearing act for the 21 st century or check 21
The Check Clearing Act for the 21st Century or Check 21

  • Purpose of Check 21 was to improve efficiency by electronically shipping checks.

  • How does Check 21 affect you?

    • Checks processed more quickly (no float).

    • Items may differ on statement, listed by check number or name.

    • Cancelled checks may or may not be returned.

Other types of checks
Other Types of Checks

  • Cashier’s Check - a check drawn on the bank’s account.

  • Certified Check – a personal check that has been certified as being good by the bank on which it is being drawn.

Other types of checks1
Other Types of Checks

  • Money Order – a variation of cashier’s check, but issued by non-banks (U.S. Postal Service).

  • Traveler’s Checks – similar to cashier’s checks, except they don’t specify a payee and have specific denominations.

Electronic funds transfer
Electronic Funds Transfer

  • Electronic funds transfer (EFT) refers to any financial transaction that takes place electronically.

  • Funds move instantly without paper.

Electronic funds transfer1
Electronic Funds Transfer

  • Examples of EFT include:

    • Debit card transactions

    • ATM transactions

    • Direct deposit of paycheck

    • Paying mortgage and utility bills

Automated teller machines
Automated Teller Machines

  • An ATM or cash machine provides cash instantly and is accessed through a credit or debit card.

  • Obvious appeal is convenience.

  • To use ATM, just swipe card, enter PIN, and indicate amount of cash.

Debit cards
Debit Cards

  • A debit card is a cross between a credit card and a checking account.

    • Looks like a credit card but acts like a checking account.

  • With debit cards, you are spending your own money, as opposed to borrowing money with a credit card.

Smart cards
Smart Cards

  • Smart cards, or “memory cards,” are a variation of a debit card. Instead of withdrawing funds from a designated bank account, you withdraw from an account that’s actually stored magnetically on the card.

    • Perform the same services as a debit or credit card

    • Allocated funds can run out

    • Some have limited issuer usage

Stored value cards another way to carry cash
Stored Value Cards – Another Way to Carry Cash

  • Merchant gift cards and prepaid phone cards are examples of stored value cards.

  • Stored value cards can be either:

    • Single purpose or “closed-loop” cards which can be used at only one store.

    • Multi-purpose or “open-loop” cards which can be used just like a credit card and can be reloaded.