Chapter 11Test Review Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
Of the following organisms, which is haploid (one set of chromosomes) and which is diploid (two sets of chromosomes)? • Gametophytes • Sporophytes • Eggs or sperm
Gametophytes are a haploid individual that produces gametes. • Sporophytes are a diploid individual that produces haploid spores. • Eggs or Sperm are haploid cells with only one set of chromosomes.
During meiosis, after two divisions, how many cells are formed and what kind are they? (haploid or diploid)
Of the following choices, which would most likely be a plant reproductive cell made by meiosis? • Spore • Clone • Sexual
What is the difference between asexual and sexual reproduction? • What is an advantage to asexual reproduction? • What is an advantage to sexual reproduction?
Asexual reproduction produces offspring identical to the parent. • Sexual reproduction produces offspring that is a combination of two parents. • Advantage to asexual reproduction is that it is simple and efficient. • Advantage to sexual reproduction is that it provides genetic diversity.
Plants and Protists • Plants and most multicellularprotists have a life cycle that alternates between a haploid phase and a diploid phase called alternation of generations. • Sporophytes are the multicellular diploid phase in the life cycle of plants. • A sporophyteproduces spores by meiosis. • A gametophyte is the haploid phase of a plant that makes gametes by mitosis.
What type of reproduction include the following and what are they? • Binary fission • Budding • Parthenogenesis • Fragmentation
Types of asexual reproduction • Binary fission occurs in prokaryotes that split into two or more individuals of roughly the same size. • Budding occurs in organisms like yeast—new organisms split off of existing ones. • Parthenogenesis is a process in which a female makes an egg that grows into an individual and doesn’t need to be fertilized by a male. • Fragmentation occurs when the body breaks into several different pieces.
Plants and Protists • Plants and most multicellularprotists have a life cycle that alternates between a haploid phase and a diploid phase called alternation of generations. • In plants, the multicellulardipolid phase is called a sporophyte which undergo meiosis to form haploid spores. • Spores form multicellular gametophytes. • Gametophytes form gametes by mitosis. • Gametes fuse and give rise to diploid phase.
At which phase of meiosis do the chromatids remain attached at their centromeres?
What does spermatognesis produce? • What does oogenesis produce? • What does gametogenesis produce? • Which ones produce haploid cells and which produce diploid cells?
Spermatogenesis produces sperm • Oogensis produces eggs. • Gametogenesis produces gametes. • All of these are haploid.
During which stage are the chromosomes attached at their centromeres to spindle fibers and lined up at the cell’s equator (center)?
Homologous chromosomes move to opposite poles of the cell during what stage?
Pairs of homologous chromosomes line up at the cell’s equator in what stage?