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AP English Language. Grammar Intensive Parts of Speech Review. 1. Nouns. Person, place, thing or idea Can be: Proper/common Concrete/abstract collective. 1. Functions of nouns. Subject The baby cried. Dogs and cats make excellent pets. Predicate Nominative –with a linking verb

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Ap english language

AP English Language

Grammar Intensive

Parts of Speech Review

1 nouns
1. Nouns

  • Person, place, thing or idea

  • Can be:

    • Proper/common

    • Concrete/abstract

    • collective

1 functions of nouns
1. Functions of nouns

  • Subject

    • The babycried.

    • Dogs and catsmake excellent pets.

  • Predicate Nominative –with a linking verb

    • My grandfather is a farmer.

  • Direct Object

    • The children ate all the cookies.

1 functions of nouns1
1. Functions of Nouns

  • Object complements – directly modifying the direct object.

    • My aunt calls my uncle sweetheart.

    • America recently elected Barack Obama president.

  • Indirect Objects

    • The salesman sold the companynew computers.

  • Object of Preposition

    • Mike bought flowers for Andrea.

1 functions of nouns2
1. Functions of Nouns

  • Appositives

    • The musician Stevie Nicks is a singer in Fleetwood Mac.

    • The teacher, my uncle, assigns a lot of homework.

1 functions of nouns3
1. Functions of Nouns

  • Adjectives – noun phrase modifiers

    • The child actor won an award.

  • Adjectives - Possessive modifiers

    • The librarians' report was informative.

  • Adverbs

    • We decided to go home.

    • Today the children woke up early.

2 pronouns
2. Pronouns

  • Use in place of one or more nouns

  • Can serve all of the same functions as nouns, including ADJECTIVES!!

  • The word that the pronoun replaces or refers to is called an antecedent

  • There are seven types of pronouns!

2 pronoun types
2. Pronoun Types

  • Personal and Personal Possessive

    I, me, my, mine

    He, him, his

    She, her, hers

    We, us, our, ours

    They, them, their, theirs

    You, your, yours

    it, its

    Note: Possessive Pronouns function as ADJECTIVES!

2 pronoun types1
2. Pronoun Types

  • Reflexive and Intensive

    • Can be used to REFLECT on a noun or

    • Can be used to INTENSIFY for emphasis

      myself ourselves yourself yourselves

      himself herself itself themselves

      Ex. Miranda explained herself.

      Ex. Miranda herself made the explanation.

2 pronoun types2
2. Pronoun Types

  • Relative Pronouns

    • Used to introduce subordinate clauses

      that who whose

      which whom

      Ex. The college [that I chose] was in Texas.

      Ex. Do you know the woman [whose writing was mentioned?]

2 pronoun types3
2. Pronoun Types

  • Interrogative Pronouns

    • Used in questions

      who which what

      whom whose

      Ex. Who borrowed my pen?

      Ex. Which do you prefer?

2 pronoun types4
2. Pronoun Types

  • Who vs. Whom

  • Who is always referring to a subject of a verb in a clause

  • Whom is always referring to an object of a verb in a clause

2 pronoun types5
2. Pronoun Types

  • Examples of correct “who” usage:

    • Who went to the circus?

    • We all know who won the game for the team.

    • Corie knows who made the cake.

    • Whoever said that you couldn't dance?

2 pronoun types6
2. Pronoun Types

  • Examples of correct “whom” usage

    • For whom did you vote?

    • With whom do you sail?

    • Whom should I ask about the discount?

    • You may go with whomever you choose.

2 pronoun types7
2. Pronoun Types

  • Who vs. Whom – The he/him test

  • Try restating your clause as statement or answer. If you can substitute “he,” use who. If you substitute “him,” use whom.

    • Who went to the circus? He went to the circus

    • Corie knows who made the cake. He made the cake.

    • For whom did you vote? I voted for him.

    • You may go with whomever you choose. I choose him.

2 pronoun types8
2. Pronoun Types

  • Demonstrative Pronouns

    • Used to point out persons or things

      This that these those

      Ex. That is an excellent answer.

      Ex. This is the correct answer.

2 pronoun types9
2. Pronoun Types

  • Indefinite Pronouns

    • Pronouns that do not usually refer to a specific antecedent

      all everybody no one

      another everyone one

      any few other

      anybody many several

      anyone most some

      both neither somebody

      each nobody someone

      either none such

3 adjectives
3. Adjectives

  • A word used to modify a noun or pronoun

  • Answers the questions:

    • Which one?

    • What kind?

    • How many?

    • How much?

3 adjective placement
3. Adjective Placement

  • Before the nouns they modify

    • The green apples smelled good.

    • I placed the arduous task in the hands of a capable student.

  • Predicate Adjective – with a linking verb

    • Deborah is practical.

    • His stew tasted delicious.

  • After the nouns they modify

    • The hikers, tired and hungry, straglled into camp

4 verbs
4. Verbs

  • A word that expresses action or state of being

  • Three types

    • Action – transitive or intransitive

    • Linking – describing state or condition

    • Helping – used with a main verb to form a verb phrase

4 verbs1
4. Verbs

  • Action Transitive – takes a direct object

    • The rain pelted the windows.

    • My cousin boughta car.

  • Action Intransitive – no object necessary

    • The rain fell.

    • My cousin drove.

  • Some are one, some are both

    • The chorus sang patriotic songs. (trans)

    • The chorus sang. (intrans)

4 verbs2
4. Verbs

  • Linking Verbs – describe state of being

  • Link the subject to a noun, pronoun or adjective that describes or identifies the subject

  • Links a subject to a subject complement

    is were appear look

    am be become remain

    are being feel seem

    was been grow sound

    stay taste

4 verbs3
4. Verbs

  • Linking verb examples

    • This is she

    • She looks serious

    • My uncle was a doctor.

  • Some words can be linking OR action, based on usage

    • The singer appeared nervous (linking)

    • The singer appeared on television (action)

4 verbs4
4. Verbs

  • Helping verbs – combine with other verbs to form verb phrases

    Am has can/may have

    Are had could/would/should have

    Is can could/would/should be

    Was may will/shall/have been

    Were will/shall be might have

    Do will/shall have might have been

    Did has/had been must

    Have can/may be must have

    must have been

4 verbs5
4. Verbs

  • Examples of Helping Verbs – they can be separated and still function as one

    • Did you see Lorraine Hansberry’s play?

    • We have not seen it yet.

5 adverbs
5. Adverbs

  • A word used to modify a verb, adjective or other adverb

  • Answers the questions

    • Where?

    • When?

    • In what way?

    • To what extent?

5 adverbs1
5. Adverbs

  • Modify a verb

    • She reads quickly. (in what way)

    • She reads early and late. (when)

    • She reads everywhere. (where)

    • She reads thoroughly. (to what extent)

    • She reads frequently. (how often)

5 adverbs2
5. Adverbs

  • Modify an adjective

    • She is an awfully intense competitor

  • Modify another adverb

    • She skated very well.

  • Used chiefly for emphasis

    really actually truly indeed

    • She can actually fly over the ice

    • She is a really good skater.

5 adverbs3
5. Adverbs

  • Nouns as adverbs

    • My parents left yesterday.

    • They will return Saturday.

6 preposition
6. Preposition

  • A word used to show the relation of a noun or pronoun to some other word in a sentence

  • Used as part of a prepositional phrase

    About beside of up

    Above besides off upon

    Across between on with

    After beyond over within

    Against by past without

    Along concerning since

    Amid down through

    Among during throughout

    Around except to

    At for toward

    Before from under

    Behind in underneath

    Below into until

    Beneath like unto

6 preposition1
6. Preposition

  • Examples of prepositions/phrases

  • The first speaker [on the program] is my mother.

  • Her cousin will teach [in San Diego] next year.

  • The two [of us] edited the article [for the magazine].

7 conjunctions
7. Conjunctions

  • Joins words or groups of words

  • Coordinating, Correlative, or Subordinating

7 conjunctions1
7. Conjunctions

  • Coordinating conjunctions

    • Connect items of equal importance

      and but or nor

      for so yet

      Ex. The bear turned and lumbered off into the woods.

      Ex. We can use a pickup truck or a jeep.

7 conjunctions2
7. Conjunctions

  • Correlative Conjunctions

    • Must be used as a pair… shows correlation

      Either… or neither… nor

      Both… and not only… but (also)

      Whether… or

      Ex. She helped both Carrie and me with our applications

7 conjunctions3
7. Conjunctions

  • Subordinating conjunctions

  • Used to begin subordinate clauses (usually adverb clauses)

    After before provided

    Although how since

    As if than

    As much as inasmuch as that

    Because in order that though

    Unless until when

    Where while

    Note: many of these words can also be used as prepositions, adverbs or relative pronouns

7 conjunctions4
7. Conjunctions

  • Examples of subordinating conjunctions

    • This computer is even better [than we had anticipated].

    • The sun had already set [when we reached the Grand Canyon].

    • [If the price is right], I will buy your bicycle.

    • [Since you can’t help me], I will do it myself

8 interjections
8. Interjections

  • A word that expresses emotion and has no grammatical relation to any other word in the sentence.

    Oh! My goodness! Yikes! Yeah,

    Hooray! Sure,



  • The Adverb Clause

  • Recognize an adverb clause when you see one.

  • An adverb clause will meet three requirements:

  • First, it will contain a subject and verb.

  • You will also find a subordinate conjunction that keeps the clause from expressing a complete thought.

  • Finally, you will notice that the clause answers one of these three adverb questions: How?When? or Why?

Ap english language

  • Read these examples:

  • Tommy scrubbed the bathroom tile until his arms ached.

  • How did Tommy scrub? Until his arms ached, an adverb clause.

  • Josephine's three cats bolted from the driveway once they saw her car turn the corner.

  • When did the cats bolt? Once they saw her car turn the corner, an adverb clause.

  • After her appointment at the orthodontist, Danielle cooked eggs for dinner because she could easily chew an omelet.

  • Why did Danielle cook eggs? Because she could easily chew an omelet, an adverb clause.

Pronoun antecedent agreement
Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement

  • What Is Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement?

  • A pronoun is a word (he, she, it, they) that takes the place of a noun. An antecedent is the word the pronoun refers to or replaces. In a sentence, the antecedent comes before the pronoun. A pronoun must agree with its antecedentin person, number, and gender.

  • Common Rules To Follow For Agreement:

  • 1.      Two singular objects connected by andrequire a plural pronoun.

  • Ex: Julie and Mike have chosen their costumes for the party.

  • 2. Words such as both, several, and many are plural and require plural pronouns.

  • Ex: Both of my cats ate their food.

Ap english language

3. The following words, when used as subjects, are always singular and must have singular pronouns:

each everybodynobody nothing

every everythingsomebody either

everyone anybody someone neither

Ex: Either of the boys will loan you his book.

Ex: Each of the girls brought her sleeping bag.

Gerund recognition practice
Gerund Recognition Practice

  • Definition: A verbal is a verb form used as another part of speech.

  • There are 3 types of verbals: Gerunds, Participles, and Infinitives.  We are going to take each of these separately in these worksheets.  We are also going to have sheets for both recognizing the verbal by itself and then as a verbal phrase.  This worksheet is just on recognizing gerunds.

  • Gerund: a verb form ending in -ing (present participle) used as a noun.  Thus it can be in the position of subject, direct object, object of the preposition, or predicate noun.

  • Examples:Subject - Reading is my favorite activity.Direct Object - I enjoy reading.Object of the Preposition - Rainy days are good days for reading.Predicate Noun - My favorite subject is reading.

Ap english language

  • Remember this: A word ending in -ing can be either a verb, a participle or a gerund.  To determine which one it is, you must determine how it is used in the sentence.  Do these steps:

  •  Find the simple subject and simple predicate.

  •  If the -ing form of the verb is not part of the simple predicate (verb), then determine how it is used in the sentence.  Is it in a noun position?  Then it is a gerund.  If it is used as an adjective, then it will be a participle.

  • Example:Bill and Tony are running.Are running is the verb in this sentence.

  • Bill and Tony enjoy running.Running is a gerund, a direct object of the action verb, enjoy.

  • The running water overflowed.Running is a participle (adjective) modifying the noun, water.

I loose sentence and periodic sentence
I. loose sentence and periodic sentence

  • I. loose sentence and periodic sentence

  • 1. A loose sentence puts the main idea before all supplementary information; in other words, it puts first things first, and lets the reader know what it is mainly about when he has read the first few words. The reverse arrangement makes a periodic sentence: the main idea is expressed at or near the end of it, and it is not grammatically complete until the end is reached. The reader does not know what it is mainly about until he finishes reading it.( A Handbook of Writing Ding Wangdao)

Loose or periodic
Loose or periodic?

  • She decided to study English though she was interested in music.

  • Although she was interested in music, she finally decided to study English.

The definition offered in the webster s new world dictionary
. The definition offered in the Webster’s New World Dictionary:

  • Loose sentence (p.798): a sentence in which the essential elements, in the main clause, come first, followed by subordinate parts, modifiers, etc., as in a compound sentence.

  • Periodic sentence (p.1005): a sentence in which the essential elements, in the main clause, are withheld until the end or separated as by modifiers or subordinate clauses.

The rhetoric function of loose sentence and periodic sentence
. The rhetoric function of loose sentence and periodic sentence

1. loose sentence

  • (1) loose sentence gives prominence to emphases and comes straight to the point:

  • She was offered a professional contract after winning the Olympic gold medal for figure skating, according to the newspaper reports.

2 periodic sentence
2. periodic sentence sentence

  • causes anticipation and suspense in readers because the important information readers are eager to know is postposed at the end of the sentence.

  • Though Jim Thorpe had brought great glory to his nation, though thousands of people cheered him upon his return to the United Stages and attended banquets and a New York parade in his honor, he was not a citizen

  • Active passive voice
    Active – Passive Voice sentence

    • Because passive voice sentences necessarily add words and change the normal doer-action-receiver of action direction, they may make the reader work harder to understand the intended meaning.

    Ap english language

    • The passive voice does exist for a reason, however, and its presence is not always to be despised. The passive is particularly useful (even recommended) in two situations:

    • When it is more important to draw our attention to the person or thing acted upon: The unidentified victim was apparently struck during the early morning hours.

    • When the actor in the situation is not important: The aurora borealis can be observed in the early morning hours.