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The Louisiana Purchase. EQ: What was the importance of the purchase and exploration of the Louisiana Territory?. The Nation Looks West. Westward settlement increase after Revolutionary War By 1800, more than 1 million settlers lived between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River

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The louisiana purchase
The Louisiana Purchase

EQ: What was the importance of the purchase and exploration of the Louisiana Territory?

The nation looks west
The Nation Looks West

  • Westward settlement increase after Revolutionary War

    • By 1800, more than 1 million settlers lived between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River

    • Most Westward settlers were farmers

      • They relied on the Mississippi River to ship crops to port of New Orleans

    • Spain threatened to close Port of New Orleans to American ships.

      • Americans made a treaty(Pinckney Treaty) with Spain in 1795. Treaty guaranteed the American’s right to ship good down the Mississippi River to New Orleans

The nation looks west1
The Nation Looks West

  • Spain secretly gives the Louisiana Territory back to France

    • 1801, Jefferson discovers the transfer of land between the two countries

      • Jefferson alarmed by development, new ruler of France: Napoleon Bonaparte gave him cause to be alarmed

      • Jefferson feared Napoleon would make France the dominant power in Europe as well as America

      • If Napoleon controlled Louisiana, Westward expansion of the United States would be blocked.

Buying louisiana
Buying Louisiana

  • In 1802, Spanish governor of Louisiana withdrew the right of Americans to ship their goods through New Orleans.

    • Westerners wanted to wage war after affair (port blockade)

  • Jefferson decided that the best approach would be to offer to purchase New Orleans from French

    • Sent James Monroe to make a deal; Monroe also had the help of Robert Livingston

    • Men were instructed to buy New Orleans and a territory to the east called West Florida

Buying louisiana1
Buying Louisiana

  • In Paris, the Americans discovered that Toussaint L’Ouverture had been waging a revolution against France in Haiti (their Caribbean colony).

  • Without Haiti as a base, the French could not defend Louisiana in the event of an American War

  • At the same time, tension between France and Britain was on the rise and war was looming; Napoleon need money to support war effort.

  • France offer the US not only New Orleans, but the entire Louisiana Territory.

Buying louisiana2
Buying Louisiana

  • Livingston and Monroe agreed to purchase territory stretching from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada and from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains.

  • Purchase an amazing bargain for the US

    • Cost 15 million ~ 4 cent an acre

    • Doubled the size of the country

    • Gave US millions of unexplored, fertile land

    • Gave US control of Mississippi

Jefferson s dilemma
Jefferson’s Dilemma

  • The Constitution does not state that a President has the power to purchase land from a foreign country

  • Jefferson reasoned that the Constitution allowed the President to make treaties, in order for purchase Congress approved the sale as a treaty and land was quickly paid for.

Lewis and clark explore the west
Lewis and Clark Explore the West

  • Even before purchase of the Louisiana Territory, Jefferson convinced Congress to spend $2500 on western expedition

  • Jefferson chose Meriwether Lewis to lead expedition

    • Lewis chose William Clark as his co-leader

  • Goals of Exploration

    • Report on Geography, plants, animals, & other natural features of region

    • Make contact with Native American who lived in territory

    • Find out waterways existed between the Mississippi and the Pacific Ocean

Lewis and clark explore the west1
Lewis and Clark Explore the West

  • Spring of 1804, Lewis and Clark left St. Louis and headed up the Missouri River

    • Expedition carried 40 men most Americans, several were French Canadians, also included an enslaved African American

    • Mid-July reached the mouth of the Platte river, powerful tributary that flows into the Missouri

    • Early-August- met Native Americans for the first time and reached the eastern edge of the Great Plains

Lewis and clark
Lewis and Clark

  • October 1804, Lewis and Clark meet Sacagawea, who would serve as a translator on their travels

  • Reach the Continental Divide (the Rocky Mountains) by 1805.

  • Reached Columbia River and had to cross a 55 mile stretch of rapids & rough river; after rapids crossing they saw the Pacific Ocean

  • Began return journey in March 1806, it took half a year to return to St. Louis.

Pike s expedition
Pike’s Expedition

  • 1806-1807- Zebulon Pike explored the southern part of the Louisiana Territory

  • Pike’s Peak in the Colorado Rocky Mountains was named after explorer

  • Pike’s route took him into Spanish New Mexico

    • Members of expedition group were arrested as spies by Spanish

    • Spanish feared Pike was gathering information for an American take over of the region

    • Men were held captive for months and were escorted back to United States

    • Pike’s report on Spanish borderlands created great American interest in the region

Section 1 review questions
Section 1 Review Questions

  • What was the importance of the purchase and exploration of the Louisiana territory. Explain 3-5 sentences

  • Why was New Orleans important to the United States?

  • What important right did the united states gain with Pinckney Treaty of 1795?

  • What were some of the goals that Lewis and Clark had to achieve on their expedition?

  • How did Sacagawea contribute to the expedition?

  • What did Lewis and Clark encounter that impeded their travel to the Pacific ocean?

  • Define the following terms: expedition, Meriwether Lewis, William Clark, Continental Divide, Zebulon Pike

  • How did the Spanish react to Pike’s expeditions? What did they do?