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The Louisiana Purchase. EQ: What was the importance of the purchase and exploration of the Louisiana Territory?. The Nation Looks West. Westward settlement increase after Revolutionary War By 1800, more than 1 million settlers lived between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River

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the louisiana purchase
The Louisiana Purchase

EQ: What was the importance of the purchase and exploration of the Louisiana Territory?

the nation looks west
The Nation Looks West
  • Westward settlement increase after Revolutionary War
    • By 1800, more than 1 million settlers lived between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River
    • Most Westward settlers were farmers
      • They relied on the Mississippi River to ship crops to port of New Orleans
    • Spain threatened to close Port of New Orleans to American ships.
      • Americans made a treaty(Pinckney Treaty) with Spain in 1795. Treaty guaranteed the American’s right to ship good down the Mississippi River to New Orleans
the nation looks west1
The Nation Looks West
  • Spain secretly gives the Louisiana Territory back to France
    • 1801, Jefferson discovers the transfer of land between the two countries
      • Jefferson alarmed by development, new ruler of France: Napoleon Bonaparte gave him cause to be alarmed
      • Jefferson feared Napoleon would make France the dominant power in Europe as well as America
      • If Napoleon controlled Louisiana, Westward expansion of the United States would be blocked.
buying louisiana
Buying Louisiana
  • In 1802, Spanish governor of Louisiana withdrew the right of Americans to ship their goods through New Orleans.
    • Westerners wanted to wage war after affair (port blockade)
  • Jefferson decided that the best approach would be to offer to purchase New Orleans from French
    • Sent James Monroe to make a deal; Monroe also had the help of Robert Livingston
    • Men were instructed to buy New Orleans and a territory to the east called West Florida
buying louisiana1
Buying Louisiana
  • In Paris, the Americans discovered that Toussaint L’Ouverture had been waging a revolution against France in Haiti (their Caribbean colony).
  • Without Haiti as a base, the French could not defend Louisiana in the event of an American War
  • At the same time, tension between France and Britain was on the rise and war was looming; Napoleon need money to support war effort.
  • France offer the US not only New Orleans, but the entire Louisiana Territory.
buying louisiana2
Buying Louisiana
  • Livingston and Monroe agreed to purchase territory stretching from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada and from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains.
  • Purchase an amazing bargain for the US
    • Cost 15 million ~ 4 cent an acre
    • Doubled the size of the country
    • Gave US millions of unexplored, fertile land
    • Gave US control of Mississippi
jefferson s dilemma
Jefferson’s Dilemma
  • The Constitution does not state that a President has the power to purchase land from a foreign country
  • Jefferson reasoned that the Constitution allowed the President to make treaties, in order for purchase Congress approved the sale as a treaty and land was quickly paid for.
lewis and clark explore the west
Lewis and Clark Explore the West
  • Even before purchase of the Louisiana Territory, Jefferson convinced Congress to spend $2500 on western expedition
  • Jefferson chose Meriwether Lewis to lead expedition
    • Lewis chose William Clark as his co-leader
  • Goals of Exploration
    • Report on Geography, plants, animals, & other natural features of region
    • Make contact with Native American who lived in territory
    • Find out waterways existed between the Mississippi and the Pacific Ocean
lewis and clark explore the west1
Lewis and Clark Explore the West
  • Spring of 1804, Lewis and Clark left St. Louis and headed up the Missouri River
    • Expedition carried 40 men most Americans, several were French Canadians, also included an enslaved African American
    • Mid-July reached the mouth of the Platte river, powerful tributary that flows into the Missouri
    • Early-August- met Native Americans for the first time and reached the eastern edge of the Great Plains
lewis and clark
Lewis and Clark
  • October 1804, Lewis and Clark meet Sacagawea, who would serve as a translator on their travels
  • Reach the Continental Divide (the Rocky Mountains) by 1805.
  • Reached Columbia River and had to cross a 55 mile stretch of rapids & rough river; after rapids crossing they saw the Pacific Ocean
  • Began return journey in March 1806, it took half a year to return to St. Louis.
pike s expedition
Pike’s Expedition
  • 1806-1807- Zebulon Pike explored the southern part of the Louisiana Territory
  • Pike’s Peak in the Colorado Rocky Mountains was named after explorer
  • Pike’s route took him into Spanish New Mexico
    • Members of expedition group were arrested as spies by Spanish
    • Spanish feared Pike was gathering information for an American take over of the region
    • Men were held captive for months and were escorted back to United States
    • Pike’s report on Spanish borderlands created great American interest in the region
section 1 review questions
Section 1 Review Questions
  • What was the importance of the purchase and exploration of the Louisiana territory. Explain 3-5 sentences
  • Why was New Orleans important to the United States?
  • What important right did the united states gain with Pinckney Treaty of 1795?
  • What were some of the goals that Lewis and Clark had to achieve on their expedition?
  • How did Sacagawea contribute to the expedition?
  • What did Lewis and Clark encounter that impeded their travel to the Pacific ocean?
  • Define the following terms: expedition, Meriwether Lewis, William Clark, Continental Divide, Zebulon Pike
  • How did the Spanish react to Pike’s expeditions? What did they do?