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Native Peoples of America to 1500 C.E. Chapter 1, Boyer. Hiawatha. member of Iroquois tribe Endless cycle of violence Family threatened, wanders through forest Has visions, meets holy man Introduces condolence of peace to Iroquois tribes Leads to creation of the League of the Iroquois

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hiawatha
Hiawatha
  • member of Iroquois tribe
  • Endless cycle of violence
  • Family threatened, wanders through forest
  • Has visions, meets holy man
  • Introduces condolence of peace to Iroquois tribes
  • Leads to creation of the League of the Iroquois
  • Represents a moment in American History before Columbus
    • Cultural diversity that existed in Pre-Columbian America
chapter focus questions
Chapter Focus Questions
  • What factors prompted the transition from Paleo-Indian to Archaic ways of life among the earliest Americans?
  • How did the varied environments of the Western Hemisphere shape the emergence of a wide diversity of Native American cultures?
  • What common values and practices did Native Americans share, despite their vast diversity
first americans c 13 000 2500 b c e
First Americans c. 13,000-2500 B.C.E.
  • Two Theories
    • Land bridge
      • 10,500 B.C.E.
      • Last Ice Age
      • Hunters
      • From Siberia
    • Boat
      • More recent theory
      • Dated 13,000 B.C.E.
      • Evidence in Chile 10,500 B.C.E.
paleo indians
Paleo- Indians
  • “earliest Americans”
  • Foundation of Native American life
  • Hunter/gathers
  • Defined roles for men and women
  • Trade/exchange of ideas
  • End of Ice Age = change in way of life
    • Dramatic changes in physical environment
archaic societies
Archaic Societies
  • Changes in environment = changes in lifestyle
    • Changes in diet
    • Shift to year-round villages
      • More defined roles for men and women
  • 5000 B.C.E. cultivation of Agriculture
    • Begins in Mesoamerica
    • Tehucan Indians 3000B.C.E.
      • Seed specialization
      • Introduction of 1st maize crop
    • Spread by 2500 B.C.E.
    • Still not significant part of daily diet
cultural diversity
Cultural Diversity
  • Mesoamerica and South America
    • Increased Crop Production
    • Maize-based farming spreads
    • Surplus leads to trade
    • Development of communities
      • Olmec
        • Urban centers
        • Hereditary rulers (chiefdoms)
        • Unequal society
mesoamerica and south america cont
Mesoamerica and South America Cont.
  • Development of Powerful States
    • Teotihuacan (2nd-7th cent.)
      • Lead bloody wars
      • Religious hierarchy
      • Extensive trade
        • Dominated Modern-day Mexico
      • Strong political system
      • Massive public works projects
      • Influences the Maya and the Aztecs
      • Declined 8th century
mesoamerica and south america
Mesoamerica and South America
  • Mayans
    • Kingdom-states, 7th- 15th centuries
    • Developed:
      • Calendar
      • Numerical system
      • Hieroglyphic writing
      • codices
  • Aztecs
    • Overthrew rulers in 1428
    • Conquering campaign
    • Religious rituals
    • Massive public works projects
    • Capital- Tenochtitlan
    • Based writing and calendar on Mayans
    • Modified environment for food production
    • Large trading system
mesoamerica and south america1
Mesoamerica and South America
  • Incas
    • Andes
    • Capital- Cuzco
    • Dominate around 1438 C.E.
    • Ability to grow crops in harsh environment key to expansion
    • Modified environment
    • Public works
revisit chapter focus questions
Revisit: Chapter Focus Questions
  • What factors prompted the transition from Paleo-Indian to Archaic ways of life among the earliest Americans?
  • How did the varied environments of the Western Hemisphere shape the emergence of a wide diversity of Native American cultures?
  • What common values and practices did Native Americans share, despite their vast diversity