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The Borrego Badlands Through Time
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  1. The Borrego Badlands Through Time A presentation to demonstrate how the science of Paleontology reconstructs the badlands and its inhabitants through time

  2. The Borrego Badlands as a River Delta Between 4 and 3 million years ago (Ma), the Borrego Badlands area was actually a river delta. There were wide tidal strip beaches and many small, shallow river channels flowing around sandbars. The red sands are deposits from the ancestral Colorado river.

  3. The Borrego Badlands as a River Delta The video clip you will watch will identify many of the inhabitants of this river delta. The genus and species of each dominant organism will appear as you are touring the river delta.

  4. Gomphotherium sp., a relative of the elephant EXTINCT Dinohippus sp., a Pliocene horse EXTINCT Caradrius vociferus, a killdeer bird Anser sp., a flock of geese Xyrauchen texanum, a humpback sucker fish Thanmnophis sp., a garter snake (Sabal miocenica) fossil re-identified as Washingtonia sp. palm tree The Borrego Badlands as a River Delta The inhabitants include:

  5. The Borrego Badlands as a Lake Shore Between 2 and 1 million years ago (Ma), parts of the Borrego Badlands area bordered a lake shore. There were rocky and sandy beaches with marshes near the lake.

  6. The Borrego Badlands as a Lake Shore Environment The video clip you will watch will identify many of the inhabitants of this lake shore. The genus and species of each dominant organism will appear as you are touring the lacustrine shore environment.

  7. The Borrego Badlands as a Lake Shore The inhabitants include: • Trachemys scripta, a common slider turtle • Tapirus merriami, Merriam’s tapir EXTINCT • Sigmodon lidsayi, Lindsay’s cotton rat EXTINCT • Rana sp., frog • Grus canadensis, sandhill crane (bird) • Rallus limicola, Virginia rail (bird) • Thanmnophis sp., a garter snake • Brantadorna downsi, Down’s gadwall EXTINCT • Phoenicopterus sp., flamingo (bird) EXTINCT

  8. The Borrego Badlands as a Riparian Forest & Stream Between 2 and 1 million years ago (Ma), parts of the Borrego Badlands area contained riparian forests surrounding a stream. Rocky banks bordered streams and small ponds that may have emptied into the lake.

  9. The Borrego Badlands as a Riparian Forest and Stream Environment The video clip you will watch will identify many of the inhabitants of this riparian forest and stream. The genus and species of each dominant organism will appear as you are touring the riparian forest and stream environment.

  10. The Borrego Badlands as a Riparian Forest The inhabitants include: • Meleagris anza, Anza turkey EXTINCT • Castor canadensis, North American beaver • (Lutra) Lontra canadensis, river Otter • Salmo sp., salmon and trout • Kinosternon sp. mud turtle • Bucifala fossilis, fossil goldeneye EXTINCT • Capromeryx sp., pronghorn EXTINCT • Picidae, woodpecker family

  11. The Borrego Badlands as a Riparian Forest more inhabitants : • Tremarctos floridanus, Florida cave bear EXTINCT • Washingtonia sp., Washington palm tree • Salix goddingii, Gooding’s willow EXTINCT • Pumelia novaceki, Novacek’s small iguana • Coendou stirtoni, Stirton’s coendou EXTINCT • Aesculus sp., buckeye tree • Pewelagus dawsoni, Dawson’s rabbit EXTINCT • Lampropeltis getulus, common kingsnake • Bufo sp., toad

  12. The Borrego Badlands as a Savannah Brushland Between 2 and 1 million years ago (Ma), much of the Borrego Badlands area was covered by savannah grasses and shrubs. Riparian forests surrounded streams while alluvial fans stretched out from the base of granitic mountains.

  13. The Borrego Badlands as a Savannah Brushland Environment The video clip you will watch will identify many of the inhabitants of this savannah brushland. The genus and species of each dominant organism will appear as you are touring the savannah brushland environment.

  14. The Borrego Badlands as a Savanna Brushland The inhabitants include: • Buteo lineatus, red-shouldered hawk • Callipepla californica, California quail • Masticophis flagellum, coachwhip snake • Crotalus sp., rattlesnake • Gambelia corona, crowned leopard lizard • Washingtonia sp., Waashington palm trees • Yucca schidigera, Mojave yucca • Mammanthus meridionalis, southern mammoth • Mammanthus columbi, (this fossil had recently been re-identified) Columbian mammoth EXTINCT

  15. The Borrego Badlands as a Savanna Brushland More inhabitants : • Equus scotti, Scott’s horse EXTINCT • Camelops sp, camel (3 types found and specific species not known) ALLEXTINCT • Canis priscolatrans, fossil renamed wolf / coyote EXTINCT • Spermophilus sp., ground squirrel We have noted changes that have taken place since the videos were created. As we find new information we must sometimes go back and rename or re-categorize fossils.

  16. Virtual Visit to the Stout Research Center in Borrego Springs • You have now observed paleontologists in the field and how they use this information to reconstruct the past. • Now, it’s time to take what you have learned and ask questions of the scientists at the Stout Paleontology Lab. Now that you have a background in the paleontology of the Borrego Badlands, a visit to the lab where all of the fossils are prepared and stored for the future. Be prepared to ask questions of the scientists and the volunteers who help bring the past alive again for all of us.