“Teachers Answer the Question of What Made Them Stay: A Phenomenological Study” Sarah Coy Dr. Christie Bledsoe Dr. Marlene Zipperlen Dr. Robert Rose
Statement of the Problem • The general problem is teacher retention affects the American educational system. • The specific problem is poor retention of teachers within the first three to five years of their career.
Impact of the Problem Teacher Turnover Exist in 2 Forms (Hahs-Vaughn & Scherff, 2008) • Attrition- Leaving the profession all together • Migration- Teachers transferring between schools A high turnover rate has both instructional cost to student achievement and financial cost to districts (Johnson, Berg & Donaldson, 2005; Blazer, 2006).
Impact of the Problem-Statistics • Over 3 million teachers worked in the United States public schools during 2007-2008 (National Center for Education Statistics, 2010) • 8% left the profession (Attrition) • 7.6% moved to another school (Migration) • 11.8% (State Average for Texas)
Impact of the ProblemStudent Achievement • Schools are forced to staff classrooms with less qualified teachers. • Interferers with the planning and implementation of a comprehensive unified curriculum (Brill & McCartny, 2008). • Once a child experiences a year with an ineffective teacher, the academic loss is difficult to redeem (Staiger & Rockoff, 2010).
Impact of the ProblemFinancial • High teacher turn-over rate forces schools to take money needed for school improvements and use it in a manner which does very little for student learning(Darling - Hammond, 2003). • Several researchers have revealed excessive teacher turnover is costing the nation billions of dollars a year(Alliance for Excellent Education, 2005). • Dill and Stafford (2008) reported the cost to replace a teacher can be up to 20% of a teacher’s salary.
Literature Review • (Brill & McCartney, 2008; Darling-Hammond, 2003; Earley & Lituchy, 1991; Fullan, 2007; Ingersoll, 2001; Kardos, 2004)
Purpose of the Study • The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore why teachers with ten or more years of experience choose to stay in the field.
Research Question • Why teachers stay in the field of education?
Theoretical Framework • Maslow- Theory of Hierarchy of Needs (Heckman, 2000) • Thorndike- Law of Readiness (Thorndike, 1913) • Bandura- Self-Efficacy Theory (Brown, 2012)
Research Design and Method • Qualitative Phenomenological Research Design • One-on-One In-Depth Interviews
Participant Selection • In order to be selected to participate in the study veteran teachers had ten or more years of experience and have taught in a rural school setting for the past five years. • Participants represented rural school settings in the Central Texas Area.
Limitations • Small sample size and geographic region • Sampling of teachers only included females • Researcher Bias
Assumptions • All participants answer the questions truthfully. • Transfers within a teacher’s career did not affect their perspective. • Researcher bias did not affect the outcome of the study.
Delimitations • Sampling of teachers was only from rural school settings in the Central Texas Area. • Studies including other states or urban school districts may find different results (Hughes, 2012).
This is what they said…. Fit Personality 4 Family Members 4 Passion for Children Schedule 3 A Teacher 2
How many of the 13 teachers if they had the opportunity to do it all over again would still become a teacher?
It Takes a Village…… • Special Thank You to: • All the teachers who participated in the study • All the administrators who nominated participants • Panel of Experts • Co-Rater Randy Lamb • Dr. Bledsoe, Dr. Zipperlen, Dr. Rose & Dr. Hendricks
References • Alliance For Excellent Education. (August 2005). Teacher attrition: A costly loss to the nation and to the states. (Issue Brief). Washington, DC • Blazer, C. (2006). Literature review on teacher transfer and turnover. Miami, FL; Office of • Accountability and Systemwide Performance. • Brill, S. & McCartney. A., (2008, October). Stopping the revolving door: increasing • teacher retention. Politics & Policy, 750-774. • Brown, C. (2012). A systematic review of the relationship between self-efficacy and burnout in • teachers. Education & Child Psychology, 29(4), 47-63. • Coggins, C. (2013). Teacher with drive. Educational Leadership, 71(2). 42-45. • Creswell, J. W., (2012). Educational research planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. University of Nebreska-Lincoln: Pearson. • Creswell, J. W., (2013). Qualitative inquiry & research design choosing among five approaches. University of Nebreska-Lincoln:SAGE Publications. • Darling-Hammond, L., (2003). Keeping good teachers; why it matters. Educational Leadership, 60(8): 6-13. Dill, V., & Stafford, D. (2008). Teacher retention a critical national problem. Education NewsRetrieved from http://www.educationnews.org/articles/teacher-retention-a- critical-national-problem.html Earley, P.C., & Lituchy, T.R. (1991). Delineating goal and efficacy effects: A Test of three models. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 81-98.
References • Fullan, M., (2007). Change the terms for teacher learning. National Staff Development • Council, 28(3), 35-36. • Hahs-Vaughn, D. L., & Scherff, L. (2008). Beginning English teacher attrition, mobility, • and retention. The Journal of Experimental Education, 77(1), 21-53. Heckman, Linda. Proquest Dissertations And Theses 2011. Section 0543, Part • 0514 117 pages; [Ed.D. dissertation].United States -- Minnesota: Walden • University; 2011. Publication Number: AAT 3450046. • Hughes, G. D. (2012). Teacher retention: teacher characteristics, school characterisitcs, • Organizational characteristics, and teacher efficacy. The Journal of Educational • Research, 105, 245-255. • Johnson, S.M., Harrison-Berg, J.L. & Donaldson, M.L. (2005). Who stays in teaching • and why: A review of the literature on teacher retention. Cambridge, MA; • Harvard Graduate School of Education, Project of the Next Generation of • Teachers. • Ingersoll, R.M. (2001). Teacher turnover and teacher shortages:an organizational • analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 42-44.
References Kardos, S. M., (2004). Supporting and sustaining new teachers in schools: the • Importance of professional culture and mentoring. Cambridge, MA; • Harvard University. • National Center for Education Statistics. (2010). Teacher attrition and mobility: Results of • the 2007-2008 teacher follow-up survey. Retrieved from nces.ed.gov/pubs2010/2010353.pdf . Staiger, D., & Rockoff, J. E. (2010). Searching for effective teachers with imperfect information. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 24(3), 97-118.