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Residential Kaleidoscope. Geo309 Urban Geography. Instructor: Jun Yan Geography Department SUNY at Buffalo. Last Class. Foundations of Residential Segregation Social interaction: determined by social distance and physical distance

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residential kaleidoscope
Residential Kaleidoscope

Geo309 Urban Geography

Instructor: Jun Yan

Geography Department

SUNY at Buffalo

last class
Last Class
  • Foundations of Residential Segregation
    • Social interaction: determined by social distance and physical distance
    • Social distance: influenced by social status, household types, ethnicity, lifestyle
  • Theories In Residential Segregation: Residential Ecology
    • The Chicago School: Human Ecology
    • Factorial Ecology
roots of human ecology
Roots of Human Ecology
  • Ecology, particularly social ecology
  • Introduced by sociologists in University of Chicago in 1920s: “Chicago School”
  • Benchmark of urban social theory
  • Attempt to explain residential segregation using ecological ideas:
    • City as a kind of social organism
    • Consists of distinctive ecological units: a particular mix of people in certain social niche
    • They compete and struggle for existence: much like their biological counterpart
    • “Social Darwinism ”: Natural Selection
natural areas
Natural Areas
  • Natural Areas:
    • Much like its biological counterpart, “Habitats”
    • which are dominated by a certain group of people
    • The result of competition for living space by different social groups
    • Each exhibits different physical and social attributes and life style of their inhabitants: the field study by Harvey Zorbaugh -- ”The Gold Coast and The Slum”; in Chicago
natural areas6
Natural Areas
  • Natural Areas:
    • Dynamic, change over time
    • Penetration  Invasion  Succession  Piling up
    • “S”-shaped curve: describes the assimilation process of invasion group (migrants or immigrants)
burgess s concentric zone model
Burgess’s Concentric Zone Model
  • By Ernest Burgess in 1920s, based on observations in Chicago;
  • Two important ecological processes:
    • Centralization: the result of agglomeration force; in the center
    • Decentralization: losers move out the periphery
  • A series of concentric zones: An alternative land use model
    • CBD—Zone in Transition—Zone of Workingman’s Homes—Residential Zone—Commuter’s Zone
burgess s concentric zone model8
Burgess’s Concentric Zone Model
  • CBD:
    • Core: concentration of commercial, office, civic activities
    • Fringe: manufacturing, warehousing/wholesaling, transportation terminal
  • Zone in transition:
    • Invaded by commercial activities, thus deteriorated
    • Once high-class neighborhood, taken over by much lower class (migrants or immigrants)
    • Slum areas, high density
burgess s concentric zone model9
Burgess’s Concentric Zone Model
  • Zone of independent workingman’s homes:
    • Blue-collar escaped from Zone in Transition
    • Usually 2rd generation of migrants or immigrants
  • Zone of better residence:
    • Middle-class or upper, single family homes, large yards
  • Zone of Commuters:
    • Upper-class, most expensive single family houses
    • Exurban areas, little industry, satellite towns or villages
burgess s concentric zone model11
Burgess’s Concentric Zone Model
  • Burgess is more interested in the assimilation process of migrants or immigrants: “S”-shaped curve
    • 1st generation = zone in transition
    • 2nd generation = zone of workingman’s homes
    • 3rd generation = high-class residential or commuter’s zone
  • Highly descriptive: more a metaphor than a map
critics of human ecology
Critics of Human Ecology
  • Its study area - Chicago:
    • The Burgess’ s model can only apply to cities with similar background: a dominant core, huge migrants or immigrants …
  • Its strong ecological roots, thus lack of other dimensions:cultural, ethnic, political, lifestyle…
  • Its Biotic analogy:natural selectionNazi/Fascist
  • New approaches:
    • With less crude mechanistic/biotic analogies: replace the term—”natural areas” by social areas or neighborhood types…
    • The use of statistical methods: to analyze the patterns of the distribution of socioeconomic attributes within a city, part of “Quantitative Revolution” in Geography
    • Most important: Factorial Ecology
factorial ecology
Factorial Ecology
  • Comes from the term -- “Factor Analysis”: A family of multivariate statistical methods
    • Attempt to measure or locate the patterns of residential segregation based on multiple socioeconomic characteristics
  • Various findings suggest:
    • Order of importance (descendent): social status  household status/lifestyle  ethnicity
    • Each also has different spatial forms of residential patterns:
      • Social status: sectoral
      • Household status: zonal
      • Ethnicity: clustered
    • Consistent over space and time
robert murdie s diagram
Robert Murdie’s Diagram
  • Social space:
    • Characterized by 3 factors: socioeconomic status, family(household) status, and ethnicity
  • Physical space:
    • The actual geographic space, independent from social space
  • Social space then superimposes itself onto physical space
  • The result: a spider’s web of sectoral-zonal lattice
berry and rees s model
Berry and Rees’s Model
  • On top of the spider’s web, there are several modifying factors:
    • Inner structures in ethnic areas: additional differentiation based on household status and lifestyle
berry and rees s model17
Berry and Rees’s Model
  • On top of the spider’s web, there are several modifying factors:
    • Star shaped growth pattern: urban growth epochs
    • Multiple foci: commercial and industrial centers in periphery
dynamics of factorial ecology
Dynamics of Factorial Ecology
  • The importance of various factors do change over time
  • Types of residential factor structures:
    • Preindustrial: family-related, kinship/social rank first, ethnicity second
    • Colonial: social rank/ethnicity/migration status first, family status second
    • Immigrant: social rank, age, gender, ethnicity more dominant than family status
    • Industrial: income (based on occupation), social rank/ family status first, greater heterogeneity in race and ethnicity second; Human Ecology, Factorial Ecology
    • Postindustrial: much more fragmented, multiple foci, mixed result
next class
Next Class
  • Contemporary Residential Segregation: since 1970s
  • Reading: chp 8. pp 217~230