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AM-OLED Introduction

AM-OLED Introduction

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AM-OLED Introduction

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  1. AM-OLED Introduction HW.Chen OLED INT 2010 12 01

  2. Contents 1. OLED Overview 2. OLED Introduction 3. OLED Process 3-1. Passive Matrix OLED Process 3-2. Active Matrix OLED Process 4. OLED Display 4-1. Passive Matrix OLED Display 4-2. Active Matrix OLED Display

  3. OLED Overview

  4. OLED overview OLED=Organic light emitting diode, Organic LED (有機發光二極體) Organic light emitting device Organic Electroluminescence

  5. OLED classification 高分子(Polymer) 小分子(Small molecule) Spin-coating or ink-jet Vacuum evaporation

  6. 小分子(Small molecule) Thermal evaporation

  7. 高分子(Polymer) Ink-jet printing

  8. OLED Introduction

  9. Single layer Device

  10. + + ○ + ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ - - - - Band structure- two layer device NPB/ Alqbarrier~0.6 eV Alq/LiF/Albarrier~ 0 eV h mobility in NPB~ 10-3 cm2 /V-s Alq/ Mg:Agbarrier~ 0.5 eV Emission from Alq e mobility in Alq~ 10-6 ~ 10-7 cm2 /V-s ITO/ NPB~ ohmic Alq Alq/ NPBbarrier<0.4 eV NPB Cathode ITO

  11. Vacuum level Energy Molecular orbital and energy level higher unoccupied levels LUMO level (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) △E Most important orbital for OLED device physics HOMO level (highest occupied molecular orbital) lower occupied levels

  12. + Charge carriers Vacuum level Energy Neutral molecule Hole (cation- radical) Electron (anion- radical)

  13. + ○ + Recombination between molecules Hole (cation- radical) Electron (anion- radical) Neutral molecule Excited state

  14. Excited state Neutral molecule Radiative and Non-radiative recombination + Heat Light or (Radiative) (Non-radiative) Radiative • Quantum yield = (Radiative + non-radiative)

  15. Recombination between molecules Hole Electron γ-->1 Couple ηr Single exciton Triple exciton ηf Heat Light ηext Outside emit Inside disappear

  16. OLED multi-layer structure Cathode EIL: Electron injection layer ETL: Electron transport layer EML: Emitting layer HTL: Hole transport layer HIL: Hole injection layer Cathode - ETL2 ETL1 5~10 V G B R HTL HIL Anode + TFT glass substrate EL emission -W

  17. Cathode - ETL2 ETL1 G Evaporation B R HTL HIL Sputter Anode + TFT glass substrate Anode R RH/RD G GH/GB B BH/BD • High work function ( treatment sensitive ) • Transparent • Conductive • ITO is commonly used for bottom/top emission

  18. Cathode - ETL2 ETL1 G Evaporation B R HTL HIL Sputter Anode + TFT glass substrate HIL R RH/RD G GH/GB B • Improve ITO contact • Usually lower IP than HTL • Add thickness to device ( without voltage increase of ohmic contact to Anode) BH/BD

  19. Cathode - ETL2 ETL1 G Evaporation B R HTL HIL Sputter Anode + TFT glass substrate HTL R RH/RD G GH/GB B BH/BD • Transport holes • Injects hole into emitting layer • Add thickness to device ( without voltage increase of ohmic contact to HIL)

  20. Cathode - ETL2 ETL1 G Evaporation B R HTL HIL Sputter Anode + TFT glass substrate EML R RH/RD G GH/GD B BH/BD • Luminescent layer • Host:Dopant combination (1~5%) determines emission spectrum

  21. Cathode - ETL2 ETL1 G Evaporation B R HTL HIL Sputter Anode + TFT glass substrate ETL R RH/RD G GH/GB B BH/BD • Transport electrons from cathode to emitting layer • Lower drive voltage

  22. Cathode - ETL2 ETL1 G Evaporation B R HTL HIL Sputter Anode + TFT glass substrate Cathode R RH/RD G GH/GB B BH/BD • Injects electrons into ETL • Low work function

  23. Summary of Each Layer Cathode - ETL for efficiency, voltage and lifetime ETL2 ETL1 Host and dopant for color, efficiency and lifetime G B HTL for efficiency, voltage and lifetime R HTL HIL for efficiency, voltage and lifetime HIL Anode + TFT glass substrate Layer thickness optimization for color, efficiency, voltage and lifetime

  24. v’ u’ CIE 1976 Luminance (cd/m2) cd/A = Current efficiency Current density (mA/cm2)  xcd/A V y 1 L/L0 0.5 Lifetime x CIE 1931 T50 Time (hrs) OLED evaluation max J  Vn Current density J (mA/cm2) Luminance(cd/m2) Light intensity FWHM Voltage (V) J wavelength(nm) Power efficiency lm/W =

  25. High visual quality High readability Little space & Mobile Energy saving High contrast Thin & Light Fast response Wide view angle Power saving OLED advantages Thin film structure Self-emitting

  26. Full Color OLED

  27. Category of OLED (a) Passive matrix OLED (PMOLED) (b) Active matrix OLED (AMOLED or TFT-OLED)

  28. PMOLED vs. AMOLED Passive matrix Active matrix • High peak luminance • Subject to cross talk • Any defects whole row and column effected (AM only the shorted pixel) • Lower cost production • Higher cost production • More complicate circuit causes more uniform driving, but decreasing ARs • LTPS vs. a-Si • Driving voltage (TFT+OLED) increased with operation

  29. OLED Application (Display) • Passive matrix OLED • Flexible OLED • Active matrix OLED

  30. OLED Application ( Light ) WOLED for general illumination.

  31. OLED Application ( Solar Cell )

  32. OLED Process

  33. OLED Process • Passive Matrix OLED Process • Active Matrix OLED Process

  34. PMOLED Process Photo Process EVP & ENC Process Module Process Color Filter Process HIL layer Desiccant RGB WOLED+C.F Polarizer HTL layer Seal resin ITO pattern Black Matrix IC EML layer Lamination Insulator R,G,B FPC ETL layer Rib ITO EIL layer &Cathode

  35. Flow Chart of PMOLED

  36. Flow Chart of PMOLED

  37. Flow Chart of PMOLED

  38. Cover Glass Getter Cathode Rib Organic Layout Insulator ITO UV Resin Glass Flow Chart of PMOLED

  39. AMOLED Process LTPS Array Process EVP & ENC Process Module Process Clean Color Filter Process HIL layer Sputter/CVD Polarizer HTL layer Seal resin Thin film Black Matrix IC EML layer VA Photolithography R,G,B RGB FPC ETL layer Etching Cathode

  40. Array Process Substrate Deposition Etching Sputtering Dry Cutting CVD(chemical vapor) Wet Cleaning Vacuum evaporation Grinding PhotoResist stripping Corner cut PhotoResist coating Plasma ashing Initial cleaning Exposure Wet stripping Stepper Array test Pre-cleaning of deposition Mirror Scanner Test Brush cleaning Proximity Repair US cleaning Development UV cleaning TFT Array Pure Water cleaning Puddle Spray

  41. Pixel Driver ITO Passivation Metal-2 Metal-1 n n n n n p p NMOS PMOS NMOS Poly-Si CMOS LTPS TFT Structure (Top-Gate) PDL

  42. Concept of ELA Process

  43. ELA Crystallization Energy Density v.s. Grain Size 98% overlap Higher Energy Density

  44. ETL1 G TFT face up TFT face down BL R Evaporation Line Passivation Cathode 2 Cathode 1 ETL2 Evap B HTL HI Anode (Re/ITO) TFT glass substrate Transfer vessel-1 Face turn Mask stock1 Mask stock2 Mask stock3 Mask stock4 Transfer vessel-2 Rotation & cooling Relay chamber Mask stock5 EML-G/ETL1

  45. ETL2 ETL1 G B BL R HTL HI Evaporation Linear Source Evaporation area Rate monitor area Glass Passivation Cathode 2 Mask Point source Cathode 1 Evap Linear source Evaporation (organic layer): Linear Source move to evaporation area  Shutter open • Material evaporate on substrate (scan type) Shutter close • Linear source return to Rate monitor area Anode (Re/ITO) TFT glass substrate

  46. Evaporation + Shadow mask Precision MaskEL layer Open Maskother layers Point Source For LiF & Cathode at TPO

  47. Substrate Shadow mask Organic evaporation source OLED Evaporation • shadow mask decides color area area color HIL, HTL, ETL Blue Green Orange full color • very fine shadow mask ~150 m (W), ~80 m (H)

  48. CF substrate Sealant Glue TFT substrate Encapsulation Line TFT+CF CF TFT CF(LOADER) UNLOADER V/A CHB UV Clean2 UV Clean1 FLIP DISPENSER1 (Seal) ENC CHB BAKING Transfer vessel UV CURE DISPENSER1 (Desiccant) DISPENSER3 (Buffer)

  49. Desiccant:Tape or Liquid Glass cap UV glue N2 Glass OLED film Bottom Emission Glass (CF) cap UV glue Optic glue Passivation Glass OLED film Top Emission OLED Encapsulation Several hours under general environment

  50. OLED Display