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English Grammar Module . For English Camp (modest user group). Article. 2 categories of article Indefinite article; a , an Definite article; the. Indefinite Article - a, an For a single thing that can be counted a girl, a tiger, an airport

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English grammar module

English Grammar Module

For English Camp

(modest user group)


Article
Article

  • 2 categories of article

    • Indefinite article; a, an

    • Definite article; the


English grammar module

  • Indefinite Article - a, an

    • For a single thing that can be counted

      • a girl,

      • a tiger,

      • an airport

    • We call these singular countable nouns.

    • Do not use a or an

      • before a plural name

      • Before the name of a thing that cannot be counted.


English grammar module

  • Do not use an before a word that a vowel that make ‘you’ sound. Use a instead.

    • A European

    • A university

  • Use an before a word that begin with

    • a vowel sound by letters a, e, i ,o, u

    • a silent h

      • An hour

      • An honour

      • An honest boy

    • Letters spoken with a vowel sound

      • An ‘A’ for English exam

      • An SMS from a friend


English grammar module

  • Use a before

    • the common name that we give to people, animals, places and things

      • A schoolboy

      • A bicycle

  • Use a or an

    • Before a word that describes a single person or thing.

    • Before the name of occupation

    • When mention a person or thing for the first time

    • To show which country a person comes from.

    • When counting or measuring thing

      • The fish costs RM40 a kilo.


English grammar module

  • Definite article – The

    • Use the

      • Before the name that can be counted.

      • Before the name that cannot be counted.

      • When people already know exactly which person or thing you are talking about.

      • When you refer to something for a second time.

      • With groups that represent the whole class of people or thing.

      • For familiar things or because it is only one of its kind.

      • Before ordinals

      • Before superlatives


English grammar module

  • Do not use a, an or the before

    • the people’s names and titles.

    • the name of most roads, villages, towns, cities, states and countries.

    • the names of holidays, festivals and events that are celebrated yearly when we refer them in general.

    • the names of nationalities and languages when we talk about them in general.

    • names of meals or food when referring in general

    • general names of sports or leisure activities


English grammar module

  • The names of colours when you speak in general

  • The names of days or months of the year or seasons, in general sense

  • Abstract noun that are used in a general sense

  • The name of diseases or illnesses.

  • Do not use a, an, the after

    • The word both and all

    • The words like kind of, type of, species of, variety of etc…


  • Nouns
    Nouns

    • We use a noun

      • to name a person, animal, place or thing.

      • to name an quality or an emotion.

    • Type of nouns

      • Common

      • Proper

      • Abstract

      • Collective

      • Compound


    English grammar module

    • Common nouns

      • The general name that we give to people and things

      • Do not start with capital letters unless at the beginning of sentences

      • Can take a plural form.

      • Example

        • Intelligent boy

        • Elephants at the zoo.


    English grammar module

    • Proper nouns

      • The name of specific person or thing

      • Example

        • Jenny Lim

        • Singapore

        • Kitty the cat

      • Begin with capital letters no matter where it occurs in a sentence.


    English grammar module

    • Collective nouns

      • Name of the group or collection of similar thing or people.

      • People

        • A troop of soldier

        • A crew of sailor

        • A band of musician

        • A field of runner

        • A panel of judges

        • A gang of thieves

        • A staff of teachers

        • A tribe of natives

        • A troupe of dancers

        • A choir of singers


    English grammar module

    • Animals

      • A brood of chickens

      • A pack of wolves

      • A flock of birds/sheep

      • A pride of lions

      • A gaggle of geese

      • A school/shoal of fish

      • A herd of cattle

      • A swarm of bees

      • A litter of kittens

      • A team of oxen


    English grammar module

    • Thing

      • A bale of cotton

      • A clutch of eggs

      • A batch of bread

      • A clump of trees

      • A bouquet of roses

      • A fleet of ships

      • A chest of drawers

      • A deck of cards

      • A galaxy of stars

      • A string of pearls


    English grammar module

    • Abstract noun

      • Refers to things such as concepts, qualities or ideas

      • Not solid thing that we can count or touch.

      • Things that we can think about or feel

      • Example

        • Love

        • Kindness

        • Health


    English grammar module

    • Compound nouns

      • Is a noun that is made up of two or more words

      • Example

      • Basketball (basket + ball)

      • Walking stick (walking + stick)

      • Mother-in-law (mother + in + law)


    English grammar module

    • Countable nouns

      • Nouns that can be counted

      • Have both singular and plural form

      • Use a or an with singular countable noun.

      • Use a few, several, many, a lot of, plenty of, a number of and numerals to count plural nouns.


    English grammar module

    • Spelling rule for plural countable nouns

      • Add suffix –s to make a noun plural

        • Clown => Clowns

        • School=> Schools

      • Add suffix –es to a noun that ends in –s, -ss, -sh, -ch, –x and –o to make it plural

        • Bus => Buses

        • Bush => Bushes

        • Witch => Witches

        • Box => Boxes

        • Potato => Potatoes


    English grammar module

    • Add suffix –ies to a noun that ends in a consonant –y to make it plural

      • Baby => babies

      • Spy => Spies

      • Lorry => Lorries

    • Add suffix –ves to some nouns that end in –f or –fe to make them plural. However, the –f or –fe has to be dropped.

      • Wolf => Wolves

      • Knife => Knives


    English grammar module

    • For irregular noun,

      • Change the vowel sound of a singular noun to make it plural

        • Tooth => Teeth

        • Man => Men

        • Woman => Women

        • Mouse => Mice

        • Louse => Lice

      • Add the suffix –en to make a noun to make it plural

        • Child => children

        • Ox => Oxen


    English grammar module


    English grammar module

    • Uncountable noun

      • Some nouns cannot be counted.

      • Example;

        • Liquid-like things such as oil, water.

        • Very tiny things such as sugar, flour.

    • Quantifiers such as some, any, no, much, a little, a lot of etc. to measure the uncountable nouns.


    Pronouns
    Pronouns

    • A pronoun is a word that is used to replace a noun word or a noun phrase.

    • It is to avoid repeating same noun many times.

    • Example of phrase without pronoun

      • Salleh and Laila live in Arau. Salleh and Laila are teachers. Salleh teaches English but Salleh does not teach Mathematics. Laila teach Mathematics but Laila does not teach English.


    English grammar module

    • Personal pronoun

      • To refer to people.

      • Personal pronoun can be in the first person, second person and third person such as in table below.

      • Use first person pronounto talk about yourself.

      • Use second person pronoun to speak to somebody else.


    English grammar module

    • Use third person pronouns to speak of other people.

      • Use she or her for female

      • Use he or him for male

      • Use it for animal or thing

      • Use they or them for plural male, female, animal or thing.


    English grammar module

    • Possessive pronoun

      • To show ownership

      • Use possessive pronoun without a noun.

      • Example : This is mine iPad.

      • A possessive pronoun tells us whether the owner is single person or many people.


    English grammar module

    • Demonstrative pronouns

      • To say whether the person or thing we are talking about is near us or not so near.

      • The demonstrative pronoun are as in the table below


    English grammar module

    • Reflexive pronouns

      • To show that the subject and the object in a sentence are the same person or thing.

      • Help us make it clear that the doer and the receiver of the action is the same person or thing.

      • Example : Ratchel bought herself a new skirt.

      • Use reflexive pronoun to emphasis by replacing immediately after the pronoun or noun phrase. This will tell us clearly that the subject did without any help.

      • Use by + reflexive pronoun to emphasize the meaning ‘alone’.


    Adjective
    Adjective

    • A word that gives us information about a noun.

    • Adjective do not have tenses and do not need to agree with the subject in person and number.

    • We usually put an adjective before the noun it describe or modifies. we can also put it after the noun.


    English grammar module

    • Adjectives of quality

      • To describe noun that give opinion, size, condition, age and colour.

      • Can be used with adverb of degree like absolutely, very, rather, fairly and a little and these adjective also have comparative and superlative forms.

      • Here are some common adjective of quality.


    English grammar module

    • Classifying adjective

      • Describe the shape, origin, material, location and purpose of noun.

      • Cannot be graded by using adverb of degree and they do not have comparative and superlative form.


    English grammar module

    • Order of adjective

      • When we use two or more adjective before a noun in a sentence, we should place then in a particular order.

      • Given below is a suggested pattern of how this can be done.


    Conjunctions
    Conjunctions

    • A linking or a joining word

    • To connect words and sentences.


    English grammar module
    Verb

    • English verb can be made up of a verb and another verb.

    • Verb that combine with prepositions are called as prepositional verb whereas those that combine with adverb are called as phrasalverb.


    English grammar module

    • Prepositional verb

      • In this combination, the preposition has an object.

      • Example

        • The cat jumped off the table.

        • My parents are looking at my report card.

    • Phrasal verb

      • When the phrasal verb has an object, the adverb can be put before or after it.

      • If the object is a pronoun or functions like one, then the adverb must be put after the pronoun.


    Wh questions
    Wh- questions

    • Wh- questions is purposely to ask a question

      • What => to ask about people and things

        • What is that boy’s name?

        • What did you do yesterday?

      • Who and Whom => to ask about people or to identify them.

        • Who is that woman?

        • To whom did you give it?


    English grammar module

    • Where => to ask about a place or position of something

      • Where do you live?

      • Where are all the boys?

    • Which => to ask about a choice

      • Which drink do you like best?

    • Why => to ask about reason

      • Why were they late?

    • When => to ask about time

      • When will he arrive?

    • Whose => to ask about who is the owner

      • Whose pen is this?


    English grammar module


    Question tags
    Question Tags the condition

    • Usually a short question added to the end of a statement

    • Made up of an auxiliary verb or a modal verb and a pronoun as the subject.

    • Usually contract or shorten the negative form of the verb in a question tag.


    English grammar module


    English grammar module


    English grammar module

    • Use a question tag to find out if something is true the condition

      • He is our fastest runner, isn’t he?

    • Use a question tag to get someone to agree with you on something.

      • The curry was hot, wasn’t it?

    • If the statement has a word like is, are, was, were, has, have, had, do, does, did, can, could, would, must, repeat that word in the question tag.

      • They are helpful, aren’t they?


    English grammar module

    • Use the conditiondoesn’t, don’t or didn’t in question tag if the statement does not contain an auxiliary verb.

      • Your mother cooks a lot of vegetables, doesn’t she?

    • Use question tags after the statement, not after the question.


    Simple present tense
    Simple Present Tense the condition

    • Present tense connects the time of an action or a state of being to the present moment in time.

    • Simple Present Tense talks about

      • A routine, that is repeating action again and again.

        • I wash my hair every day.

    • Something that always true.

      • We havetwo hands.


    English grammar module

    • Add the condition–s, -esor –iesto the end of the verb in the simple present tense if the subject is in the 3rd person singular.


    Present continuous tense
    Present Continuous Tense the condition

    • Also known as present progressive tense

    • To show action in progress or continuous action

    • The action is temporary in the time of speaking

      • Be(is, am, are) + noun + ing

      • Example; I am looking my sister


    English grammar module

    • Some basic rule to follow the condition

      • Rule 1: If the verb ends with –e, drop the –e and add –ing. Example;

        • Dance => dancing

      • Rule 2: If the verb ends in a consonant and has a vowel before it, double the consonant and add –ing. Example;

        • Grab => grabbing

      • Rule 3: If the verb ends in a vowel +y, just add –ing. Example;

        • Say =>saying


    English grammar module

    • Rule 4: Some verb that ends with a the conditionc have k + ingadded to them. Example;

      • Panic =>Panicking

    • Rule 5: In single syllable verb where there is a consonant-vowel-consonant combination, double the final consonant and add –ing. This rule does not apply to words ending with –w, -x or –y.


    Simple past tense
    Simple Past Tense the condition

    • The past tense shows us what happened in the past.

    • The action is completely finished before the time of speaking.

    • Most verb form the simple past tense with –ed. Words like these are called regular verb.

      • We walked up that hill last Saturday.


    English grammar module


    Past continuous tense
    Past Continuous Tense the simple past tense of regular verb.

    • Past continuous tense is used to talk about an action or an event which was going on at particular time at the past.

    • The action started before that particular time and most likely went on for a short while after that

      • Example; It was raining heavily during recess time.


    English grammar module

    • Use past continuous tense the simple past tense of regular verb.

      • To talk about an action that was going on over a longer period or over a whole period of time.

      • To talk about an action that was happening but was interrupted by another action.

        • Tasha was frying an egg when she heard a knock on the door.

      • To talk about two actions that were going on at the same time

        • Diana was blowing up the balloons while Martin was tying them up.


    English grammar module


    English grammar module

    • Use not with the past continuous tense to turn it into the negative.

      • I was not talking to you.

      • My parents were not feeling well all last week.

    • Some verbs are not usually used in past continuous tense such as recognise, own, forget and fear.

      • But, in informal speech we normally break this rules


    Simple future tense
    Simple Future Tense negative.

    • Future Tense is used to tell us that the action describe by the verb will take place at some point in the time to come.

      • Use will to talk about things that will probably or certainly happen in the future; that we cannot control.

        • She will be 12 years old tomorrow.

      • Use shall

        • In the first person singular and plural.

        • To ask questions


    English grammar module

    • Use negative.will/shall to

      • Make offers, requests, suggestions and to give orders.

        • Shall we cook dinner for you tonight?

        • Will you turn off the tap, please?

      • Express willingness and decisions.

        • We will repair the door for you.

      • Make promise and to give warnings.

        • Leave now or I will call police.

      • Make prediction

        • It will rain tonight.


    Preposition
    Preposition negative.

    • Words like on, in, under, of, by and for are called preposition.

    • Usually comes before a noun.

    • Preposition is used

      • To show location, direction, movement and time.

    • Preposition can a single word or more.


    English grammar module

    • Prepositional phrase negative.

      • Made up of a preposition and the word(s) that follow it.

      • A preposition can be followed by a noun phrase, a pronoun or a gerund.

      • Example

        • We found a cat sleeping on our new car this morning.

        • There is a rat behind the cupboard.

        • This rose is for you.


    English grammar module

    • Preposition of place negative.

      • Tell us where someone or something is

      • Usually put them after the verb and before the noun phrase in a sentence.

    • Preposition of movement

      • Tells us about change of place or position

      • Always follow a verb

    • Preposition of time

      • Tells us when something is happen