slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
AHSGE Remediation Standards IV-V, Part A

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 214

AHSGE Remediation Standards IV-V, Part A - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

AHSGE Remediation Standards IV-V, Part A. Standard IV, Objective 1: Identify and evaluate events, causes, and effects of the Civil War. IV, 1. • Recognize and analyze the factors leading to sectional division.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'AHSGE Remediation Standards IV-V, Part A' - arnie

Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

AHSGE Remediation

Standards IV-V, Part A


Standard IV, Objective 1: Identify and evaluate events, causes, and effects of the Civil War.

IV, 1

• Recognize and analyze the factors leading to sectional division.


What congressional solution made California a free state and gave popular sovereignty to the New Mexico and Utah territories? 

Compromise of 1850 (AHSGE): Attempt to settle slave state/free state tensions over the new territory (see map) that had been acquired from Mexico.


Clay's Compromise

1. Ended slave trade in the District of


2. A new fugitive slave law

3. Federal assumption of the Texas debt

4. Admit California as free state

5. Divide remaining Mexican cession

into New Mexico and Utah and allow

popular sovereignty to decide (in other

words, let the people of each

territory/state decide).


Fugitive Slave Act (AHSGE): Of all the bills that made up the Compromise of 1850, the Fugitive Slave Act was the most controversial and it made abolitionists all the more resolved to put an end to slavery.


1. Slaves had no right to a trial by jury

2. Slaves couldn't testify on their own behalf

3. Return to slavery only on the testimony of

supposed slave owner

4. Court commissioner received $10 if rule for

slave owner; $5 for accused slave

5. No time limit for groups to hunt

possible slave


Passage of the Fugitive Slave Act made abolitionists all the more resolved to put an end to slavery. The Underground Railroad became more active, reaching its peak between 1850 and 1860. The act also brought the subject of slavery before the nation. Many who had previously been ambivalent about slavery now took a definitive stance against the institution.


Kansas-Nebraska Act (AHSGE): Gave popular sovereignty to the unorganized territory (see map)

What act supported by Stephen Douglas gave popular sovereignty to two territories just west of Missouri? 


I. Kansas-Nebraska Act

A. Stephen Douglas' motive

1. Preserving the Union by enabling the

Midwest to hold the balance of political

power between the North and South

2. Uniting the Democrat party around a

single issue

3. Encouraging construction of a railroad

from Chicago to the West to guarantee a

continuous line of settlement between the

Midwest and the Pacific


B. Concessions for the South

1. Why? Douglas needed the South to agree

2. What were they?

a. South wanted railroad to have route

from a southern city to the Pacific

b. Nebraska was North of parallel 36'30'',

which under the Missouri

Compromise could not have slaves


C. Results

1. Douglas forced to say Nebraska Act would

override or supersede the Missouri


2. It split the Nebraska Territory into Kansas

and Nebraska

3. It applied the principle of popular

sovereignty to Nebraska and Kansas, but

it was assumed that Kansas, closer to the

South, would be slave


4. Anti-slavery supporters accused the K-N act

of violated the "sacred pledge" of Missouri


5. Southerners, originally indifferent, became

furious when plan is assaulted

6. Vote on Act passes, but a clear sectional vote

7. Idea of free soil unites northerners


What political party was formed in the 1850's that supported the anti-slavery platform (also, it is known as the party of Lincoln)? 


Formation of Republican Party (AHSGE): In the 1850s, a new party arose in response to the failures of the Democratic and Whig parties, and the slavery issue (Lincoln a Republican).

A. Coalition

1. Former Northern Whigs mad at

Southern Whigs

2. Former Northern Democrats mad that

Southerners dominated the party

3. Former Know-Nothings

B. Issues avoided

1. Economic issues such as tariffs,

banking, internal improvements

2. Immigrants/Catholic issues

3. Slavery issue

C. Unity Issue--Bleeding Kansas



What famous court case upheld the right of slave owners as property holders and disallowed slaves to file court cases? 


Dred Scott decision (AHSGE):Supreme Court that decided on the side of slaveholders.

Decisions (Taney, Chief Justice)

a. Scott could not sue for freedom

b. No black, slave or free, could be a

U.S. citizen

c. Congress could not bar slavery in

the territories; therefore Missouri

Compromise unconstitutional



Who led the massacre at Pottawatomie Creek, NE and led the raid on the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry? 


John Brown's Raid (AHSGE)

raid of the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia to arm slaves with the weapons he and his men seized from the arsenal. However local farmers, militiamen, and Marines led by Robert E. Lee killed or captured,. within 36 hours of the attack, most of Brown's men.Results:

a. Northern abolitionists were


b. Southerners were incensed


1860 election (AHSGE): Lincoln (Republican)--WINS (wasn't even on many southern ballots)

b. John Breckinridge (Democratic, Southern)

V.P. under Buchanan, from Kentucky

c. Stephen Douglas (Democratic, Northern)

Senator from Illinois

d. John Bell (Constitutional Union) 

U.S. Senator from Tennessee


Democratic split (AHSGE): In the 1860 election, the northern and southern democrats split, leading to a republican victory.


The U.S. Civil War

What state was the first to secede from the Union in 1860? 


Secession (AHSGE):South Carolina secedes in Dec. 1860, immediately after the election of Lincoln.


Federal response (AHSGE): After much of the lower south secedes, once Lincoln take office, he appeals for 75,000 militiamen to suppress an insurrection in the Lower South. Upper South seceded when Lincoln proclaimed that an insurrection existed


formation of Confederacy (AHSGE):In February 1861, representatives from the seven seceded states met in Montgomery, Alabama to found the Confederate States of America.

Montgomery, AL (AHSGE): location of the 1st capital of the Confederacy. Later moved to Richmond, VA


Fort Sumter (AHSGE): site of the first engagement between union and confederate forces in Charleston, SC.

Began on April 12, 1861 when Confederate artillery opened fire on this Federal fort in Charleston Harbor. Fort Sumter surrendered 34 hours later. Union forces would try for nearly four years to take it back.


Northern goals (AHSGE): Reunite the secessionist states, even with the use of force.

Southern goals (AHSGE): peacefully secede from the north, but if necessary fight a defensive war.


Winston County (AHSGE):Winston County gained notoriety during the Civil War at the Looney's Tavern meeting where it was declared the "Free State of Winston" with plans to secede from the state though it never did.


What state was actually split over the decision to secede and eventually became two states?


What new state was created?


• Identify and analyze the non-military events of the Civil War.


What was the most famous of the Black military units to fight in the Civil War? 


creation of black military units (AHSGE): including the Fifty-Fourth regiment, were made up of free Blacks including the sons of Frederick Douglass, who were instrumental in the formation of the 54th.


The 54th

On July 18, 1863, the regiment won undying glory by leading the bloody assault on Fort Wagner near Charleston, South Carolina. In the attack nearly half the regiment was killed, wounded or captured. Colonel Shaw was among those who died. For his bravery in the battle, Sergeant William H. Carney became the first African American to earn the Medal of Honor, the nation's highest military award. The survivors of the Fifty-fourth went on to participate in the eventual capture of Fort Wagner several weeks later.

    The Fifty-fourth continued to serve throughout the remainder of the war. They fought at Olustee, Florida; Honey Hill, South Carolina; and finally at Boykin's Mills, South Carolina.

    The example of steadfast courage and heroism set by the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts paved the way for the enlistment of over 200,000 African Americans in the Union Army and Navy.



What act passed by the Republican dominated congress (during the Civil War) gave 160 acres to western settlers? 


Homestead Act (AHSGE): Passed to encourage settlement of the west; Settlers received 160 acres and could gain title to the land by living there for five years.

  • The federal government helped settle the Great Plains by passing the Homestead Act in 1862. 
  • For $10, a settler could file for a homestead, or a tract of public land available for settlement.

The Homestead Act

May 20, 1862

(U. S. Statutes at Large, Vol. XII, p. 392 ff.)

AN ACT to secure homesteads to actual settlers on the public domain.

Be it enacted, That any person who is the head of a family, or who has arrived at the age

of twenty-one years, and is a citizen of the United States, or who shall have filed his

declaration of intention to become such, as required by the naturalization laws of the

United States, and who has never borne arms against the United States Government or

given aid and comfort to its enemies, shall, from and after the first of January, eighteen

hundred and sixty-three, be entitled to enter one quarter-section or a less quantity of

unappropriated public lands, upon which said person may have filed a pre-emption claim,

or which may, at the time the application is made, be subject to pre-emption at one dollar

and twenty-five cents, or less, per acre; or eighty acres or less of such unappropriated

lands, at two dollars and fifty cents per acre, to be located in a body, in conformity to the

legal subdivisions of the public lands, and after the same shall have been surveyed:

Provided, That any person owning or residing on land may, under the provisions of this

act, enter other land lying contiguous to his or her said land, which shall not, with the

land so already owned and occupied, exceed in the aggregate one hundred and sixty


Sec. 2. That the person applying for the benefit of this act shall, upon application to the

register of the land office in which he or she is about to make such entry, make affidavit

before the said register or receiver that he or she is the head of a family, or is twenty-one

or more years of age, or shall have performed service in the Army or Navy of the United

States, and that he has never borne arms against the Government of the United States

or given aid and comfort to its enemies, and that such application is made for his or her

exclusive use and benefit, and that said entry is made for the purpose of actual

settlement and cultivation, and not, either directly or indirectly, for the use or benefit of

any other person or persons whomsoever; and upon filing the said affidavit with the

register or receiver, and on payment of ten dollars, he or she shall thereupon he

permitted to enter the quantity of land specified: Provided, however, That no certificate

shall be given or patent issued therefor until the expiration of five years from the date of

such entry; and if, at the expiration of such time, or at any time within two years

thereafter, the person making such entry -- or if he be dead, his widow; or in case of her

death, his heirs or devisee; or in case of a widow making such entry, her heirs or devisee,

in case of her death -- shall prove by two credible witnesses that he, she, or they have

resided upon or cultivated the same for the term of five years immediately succeeding the

time of filing the affidavit aforesaid, and shall make affidavit that no part of said land has

been alienated, and that he has borne true allegiance to the Government of the United

States; then, in such case, he, she, or they, if at that time a citizen of the United States,

shall be entitled to a patent, as in other cases provided for by law: And provided, further,

That in case of the death of both father and mother, leaving an infant child or children

under twenty-one years of age, the right and fee shall inure to the benefit of said infant

child or children, and the executor, administrator, or guardian may, at any time within two

years after the death of the surviving parent, and in accordance with the laws of the

State in which such children for the time being have their domicile, sell said land for the

benefit of said infants, but for no other purpose; and the purchaser shall acquire the

absolute title by the purchase, and be entitled to a patent from the United States, and

payment of the office fees and sum of money herein specified.. ..


What act passed by the Republican dominated congress (during the Civil War) gave large land grants to states from the federal government? 

  • Morrill Land Grant Act (AHSGE) gave federal land grants to states for the purposes of establishing agricultural and mechanical colleges 

Land Grant Institutions


Alabama A&M University

Auburn University

Tuskegee University


University of Alaska, Fairbanks


University of Arizona


University of Arkansas

University of Arkansas Pine Bluff


University of California


Colorado State University


University of Connecticut


Delaware State College

University of Delaware


University of the District of Columbia


Florida A&M University

University of Florida


Fort Valley State College

University of Georgia


University of Guam


University of Hawaii


University of Idaho


University of Illinois


Purdue University


Iowa State University


Kansas State University


Kentucky State University

University of Kentucky


Louisiana State University

Southern University


University of Maine


University of Maryland

University of Maryland, College Park


University of Massachusetts


Michigan State University


University of Minnesota


Alcorn State University

Mississippi State University


Lincoln University

University of Missouri


Montana State University-Bozeman



University of Nebraska


University of Nevada, Reno


University of New Hampshire


Rutgers - the State University of New Jersey


New Mexico State University


Cornell University


North Carolina A&T State University

North Carolina State University


North Dakota State University


Ohio State University


Langston University

Oklahoma State University


Oregon State University


Pennsylvania State University


University of Puerto Rico


University of Rhode Island


Clemson University

South Carolina State University


South Dakota State University


Tennessee State University

University of Tennessee


Prairie View A&M University

Texas A&M University


Utah State University


University of Vermont


University of the Virgin Islands


Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University

Virginia State University


Washington State University


West Virginia University

West Virginia State College


University of Wisconsin-Madison


University of Wyoming



Draft opposition (AHSGE) with the manpower shortage on both sides during the war, both side started a draft (Confederacy first); it was resisted by southerners and New York had riots.

The Confederacy passed its first of 3 conscription acts 16 April 1862, and scarcely a year later the Union began conscripting men. exemption and commutation clauses allowed propertied men to avoid service, thus laying the burden on immigrants and men with few resources. Occupational, only-son, and medical exemptions created many loopholes in the laws. Doctors certified healthy men unfit for duty, while some physically or mentally deficient conscripts went to the front after sham examinations. Enforcement presented obstacles of its own; many conscripts simply failed to report for duty.


Under the Union draft act men faced the possibility of conscription in July 1863 and in Mar., July, and Dec. 1864. Draft riots ensued, notably in New York in 1863. Of the 249,259 18-to-35-year-old men whose names were drawn, only about 6% served, the rest paying commutation or hiring a substitute.        The first Confederate conscription law also applied to men between 18 and 35, providing for substitution (repealed Dec. 1863) and exemptions. A revision, approved 27 Sept. 1862, raised the age to 45; 5 days later the legislators passed the expanded Exemption Act. The Conscription Act of Feb. 1864 called all men between 1 7 and 50. Conscripts accounted for one-fourth to one-third of the Confederate armies east of the Mississippi between Apr. 1864 and early 1865. Source: "Historical Times Encyclopedia of the Civil War" Edited by Patricia L. Faust


What did Lincoln pass on Jan. 1, 1863 granting freedom to slaves in the Confederate states in rebellion? 


Emancipation Proclamation (AHSGE): Lincoln declared "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free," Jan. 1, 1863 granting freedom to slaves in the Confederate states in rebellion 

Emancipation--strengthened the moral cause of the Union

Lincoln's political reasons

1. The desire to injure the Confederacy, threaten its property, heighten its dread, saps its moral, and hasten its demise

2. The need to gain the support of European liberals, who wanted a crusade against slavery

3. His intention to steal the political initiative from

the Radical Republicans in Congress.


Despite this expansive wording, the Emancipation Proclamation was limited in many ways. It applied only to states that had seceded from the Union, leaving slavery untouched in the loyal border states. It also expressly exempted parts of the Confederacy that had already come under Northern control. Most important, the freedom it promised depended upon Union military victory.

Although the Emancipation Proclamation did not immediately free a single slave, it fundamentally transformed the character of the war.



What did Lincoln suspend during the Civil War, depriving many citizens of their civil rights? 


Suspension of Habeas Corpus (AHSGE):During the Civil War, Lincoln (to limit pockets of secession in Union states), in certain regions, suspended the right of prisoners to appear before a judge.

Habeas corpus says that authorities must bring a person they arrest before a judge who orders it. The U.S. Constitution says: "The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it." But Lincoln suspended habeas corpus without waiting for Congress to authorize it. Lincoln's action meant that individuals could be arrested and held without formal charges being lodged against them. Taney ruled that Lincoln's order violated Article 1, Section 9, of the U.S. Constitution, which gave only Congress the power to suspend habeas corpus. Lincoln ignored the ruling. Congress ratified the suspension in 1863.

Civil War scholars generally point to the large pockets of anti-war sentiment in the Union states as a justification for his wartime suspension of civil liberties.


Examine the military defeat of the Confederacy.

What was the first major battle of the Civil War? 

First Battle of Bull Run (AHSGE): or Manassas; 1st major land battlein which Union soldiers were routed but Confederate soldiers did not pursue.

Location: Fairfax County and Prince William County

Campaign: Manassas Campaign (July 1861)

Date(s): July 21, 1861

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell [US]; Brig. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston and Brig. Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard [CS]

Forces Engaged: 60,680 total (US 28,450; CS 32,230)

Estimated Casualties: 4,700 total (US 2,950; CS 1,750)


Description: This was the first major land battle of the armies in Virginia.  On July 16, 1861, the untried Union army under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell marched from Washington against the Confederate army, which was drawn up behind Bull Run beyond Centreville. On the 21st, McDowell crossed at Sudley Ford and attacked the Confederate left flank on Matthews Hill. Fighting raged throughout the day as Confederate forces were driven back to Henry Hill.  Late in the afternoon, Confederate reinforcements (one brigade arriving by rail from the Shenandoah Valley) extended and broke the Union right flank. The Federal retreat rapidly deteriorated into a rout. Although victorious, Confederate forces were too disorganized to pursue. Confederate Gen. Bee and Col. Bartow were killed. Thomas J. Jackson earned the nom de guerre “Stonewall.” By July 22, the shattered Union army reached the safety of Washington. This battle convinced the Lincoln administration that the war would be a long and costly affair. McDowell was relieved of command of the Union army and replaced by Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, who set about reorganizing and training the troops.

Result(s): Confederate victory


What battle resulted in the single bloodiest day of the Civil War? 

Antietam (AHSGE):Single bloodiest day of the Civil War; 23,000 soldiers were killed, wounded or missing after twelve hours of savage combat on September 17, 1862. The Battle of Antietam ended the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia’s first invasion into the North and led to Abraham Lincoln’s issuance of the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.


Other Names: Sharpsburg

Location: Washington County

Campaign: Maryland Campaign (September 1862)

Date(s): September 16-18, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Description: On September 16, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan confronted Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia at Sharpsburg, Maryland. At dawn September 17, Hooker’s corps mounted a powerful assault on Lee’s left flank that began the single bloodiest day in American military history. Attacks and counterattacks swept across Miller’s cornfield and fighting swirled around the Dunker Church. Union assaults against the Sunken Road eventually pierced the Confederate center, but the Federal advantage was not followed up. Late in the day, Burnside’s corps finally got into action, crossing the stone bridge over Antietam Creek and rolling up the


Confederate right. At a crucial moment, A.P. Hill’s division arrived from Harpers Ferry and counterattacked, driving back Burnside and saving the day.

Although outnumbered two-to-one, Lee committed his entire force, while McClellan sent in less than three-quarters of his army, enabling Lee to fight the Federals to a standstill. During the night, both armies consolidated their lines. In spite of crippling casualties, Lee continued to skirmish with McClellan throughout the 18th, while removing his wounded south of the river. McClellan did not renew the assaults. After dark, Lee ordered the battered Army of Northern Virginia to withdraw across the Potomac into the Shenandoah Valley.

Result(s): Inconclusive (Union strategic victory.)

Anteitam battle field on the day of the battle September 16,1862.


Vicksburg (AHSGE)—strategically

important because this Mississippi battle gave the North control over the whole Mississippi River, and thus split the South into two parts.

See notes



What major three-day battle did the Confederates (under Lee) lose in Pennsylvania? 


Gettysburg (AHSGE): Pennsylvania battle that was a turning point in the war. Although Meade did not pursue Lee, the North celebrated this victory over the South.

By the summer of 1863, the brilliant General Robert E. Lee was in command of the Army of Northern Virginia.  He decided upon  an invasion of the north, which would pull both armies from war torn northern Virginia, where most of the fighting had previously been. By invading the north and particularly, winning a victory in the north, it might cause disenchanted northerners to pressure the Lincoln administration to seek a settlement toward peace, thus ending the war.

1, 1863Lee ordered several brigades to travel east to check their location and to forage for supplies for his troops. Northwest of the town of Gettysburg they met. A skirmish ensued and as the battle heated, word was sent back to both commanders that the enemy was found and reinforcement troops proceeded to the area. Over the next 2 days Lee’s army converged onto Gettysburg from the west and north while Meade’s army arrived from the south and southeast. Thus a battle never planned occurred simply by circumstance.


What Union general captured Atlanta and continued southeast to Savannah destroying everything in his path? 


Sherman’s March (AHSGE): the Civil War's most destructive campaign against a civilian population to prove to the Confederate population that its government could not protect the people from invaders.


Sherman's march frightened and appalled Southerners. It hurt morale, for civilians had believed the Confederacy could protect the home front. Sherman's March to the SeaSherman had terrorized the countryside; his men had destroyed all sources of food and forage and had left behind a hungry and demoralized people. Although he did not level any towns, he did destroy buildings in places where there was resistance.

Sherman, however, burned or captured all the food stores that Georgians had saved for the winter months. As a result of the hardships on women and children, desertions increased in Robert E. Lee's army in Virginia. Sherman believed his campaign against civilians would shorten the war by breaking the Confederate will to fight, and he eventually received permission to carry this psychological warfare into South Carolina in early 1865. By marching through Georgia and South Carolina he became an archvillain in the South and a hero in the North.


I think it is absolutely necessary that we

should abandon our position tonight. . .

Telegram from Robert E. Lee, in Petersburg,

to Jefferson Davis, in Richmond, April 2, 1865

Richmond, the capital, surrenders leading

to . . .

See notes


What famous speech was given by Lincoln at a consecration ceremony where he reminded Americans of the basic ideal, "All men are created equal?" 

Gettysburg Address: Approximately two minute speech by Lincoln at the dedication of the battlefield and cemetery in which he “rededicates” the war toward a “government of the people, by the

people, for the people.”


See notes

Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought

forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty,

and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created


Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether

that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated,

can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of

that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field,

as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives

that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and

proper that we should do this.

But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate - we can not

consecrate - we can not hallow - this ground. The brave

men, living and dead, who struggled here, have

consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract.

The world will little note, nor long remember what we say


here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for

us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished

work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly

advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the

great task remaining before us - that from these honored

dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which

they gave the last full measure of devotion - that we

here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in

vain - that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth

of freedom - and that government of the people, by the

people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

President Abraham Lincoln

November 1863



Where did Robert E. Lee surrender to Grant in 1865? 


Lee’s surrender/Appomattox (AHSGE):On Palm Sunday, 1865 Lee surrendered to Grant signaling the end of the Southern States' attempt to create a separate nation.

See notes


Cost of war (AHSGE): after four years of Civil War, approximately 630,000 deaths and over 1 million casualties, the South was economically ruined.


• Identify and compare the successes and failures of Reconstruction

What was the program called that returned southern states to the Union, rebuilt the South's infrastructure, and attempted to protect the rights of free blacks?

Reconstruction (AHSGE): Plan to return Southern states to the Union, rebuild the South's infrastructure, and protect the rights of free blacks

Unfortunately, how the Reconstruction was to be done was highly debated. Possibly because of Lincoln’s death, his more lenient (to the South) plan was not accepted by the Radical Republicans.


--Plans for Reconstruction

Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction (AHSGE): (Dec. 1863) 10% of population must swear allegiance to the Union, Confederate officials ask for presidential pardons, and recognize emancipation (13th Amendment).

Ten percent plan

1. State govts. could be formed when 10% of those who voted in 1860 (note: that does not include freedmen) swore allegiance to the

Union and accepted emancipation

2. Confederate officials and military officers needed presidential pardons before participating in the new government

See notes


What amendment abolished slavery? 

13th Amendment (AHSGE): Abolished slavery.

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


What amendment guarantees protection of the laws for all citizens? 

14th Amendment (June 1866) (AHSGE):Gave citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the U.S.

1. Passed by Congress and required southern

2. Johnson opposed it because it denied states the right to manage their own affairs


Weakened by the Slaughterhouse cases of


a. Federal government obliged to protect

only basic rights of NATIONAL


b. Federal government did not have to protect

such rights against state violations



What amendment gave the vote to African American males? 

Fifteenth Amendment (AHSGE): Right of Citizens to Vote

Section. 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Section. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

  • However, African Americans would be kept from voting using the Grandfather Clauses
  • The White Primary
  • Literacy Tests
  • Racial Gerrymandering

Radical Reconstruction (AHSGE): Congressional Plan that made it harder for southern states to be readmitted.

Congressional Reconstruction Act of 1867

A. Placed South under military rule for a

short time

B. Quick readmission if states allow black


C. Election of delegates to state conventions

by southern black voters and whites

C. Ex-Confederate disqualified from holding

federal office could not vote for

delegates to constitutional convention

D. Ratification of the 14th Amendment


Southern military districts (AHSGE): the South was put under military control after the Civil War and divided into 5 military districts.


What were the laws called passed by southern states attempting to control freedmen and keeping them in a subservient position? 


Black codes (AHSGE): state laws (varied state to state) to control freed black and restrict their legal and civil rights.

  • In South Carolina persons of color contracting for service were to be known as "servants," and those with whom they contracted, as "masters." On farms the hours of labor would be from sunrise to sunset daily, except on Sunday. The negroes were to get out of bed at dawn. Time lost would be deducted from their wages, as would be the cost of food, nursing, etc., during absence from sickness. Absentees on Sunday must return to the plantation by sunset. House servants were to be at call at all hours of the day and night on all days of the week. They must be "especially civil and polite to their masters, their masters' families and guests," and they in return would receive "gentle and kind treatment." Corporal and other punishment was to be administered only upon order of the district judge or other civil magistrate. A vagrant law of some severity was enacted to keep the negroes from roaming the roads and living the lives of beggars and thieves."

What were northerners called who moved to the South, voted Republican, and were scorned by southerners after the Civil War? 


Carpetbaggers (AHSGE) recent arrivals from the North, primarily former Union soldiers who hoped to buy land, open factories, build railroads, or enjoy the warmer climate


What were southerners called who voted Republican after the Civil War?

Scalawags (AHSGE): former Whig planters or merchants who were in the South before the war and held most of the political offices during Reconstruction


What southern secret society emerged during the Reconstruction that harassed, tormented, and killed blacks demanding equality? 

Organized resistance groups (AHSGE): Many white Alabamians fought Reconstruction through the political process and also through the emergence of organized resistance groups. The Ku Klux Klan (answer to above question) was the most well known. Others were the Pale Faces and the Knights of the White Camellia.


What man served as president during Reconstruction and whose legacy (as president) is remembered as being very corrupt? 


Presidency of U.S. Grant (AHSGE): legacy includes the fact that his administration was very corrupt.

“I have acted in every instance from a conscientious desire to do what was right, constitutional, within the law, and for the very best interests of the whole people. Failures have been errors of judgment, not of intent.”    

“I have made it a rule of my life to trust a man long after other people gave him up, but I don't see how I can ever trust any human being again


End of Reconstruction (AHSGE): the north occupation of the South ended in when the Republican and Democratic parties affected a compromise concerning the 1876 election


Election of 1876 (AHSGE): Disputed election in which Hayes (R) gets the presidency in return for ending Reconstruction.

In the end, returns in three states, South Carolina, Florida and Louisiana were disputed. Tilden was one state short of victory. Congress appointed a congressional committee to investigate. The committee decided to award all the disputed votes to Hayes. Hayes, in return, however, promised to end reconstruction. Hayes became the next President.


What congressional solution resulted in Hayes winning the presidential election in 1876 and Reconstruction ending? 


“Compromise of 1877”(AHSGE):ended Reconstruction when the Republican and Democratic parties affected a compromise concerning the 1876 election with Hayes given the presidency.

1. Hayes given presidency

2. Filibuster broken by southern Democrats

3. Radical governments fall—Solid South begins

4. Army removed from the South

5. More federal patronage to southern Democrats

6. Federal aid for building railroads and other internal improvements


New South (AHSGE): After Reconstruction, Planter class tries to reestablish old order with as few changes as possible and Middle class wants a more commercial and industrial South.

Politics after Reconstruction (AHSGE) Democrats re-gained control of the legislature and governor's office and, in the next year, rewrote the state’s Reconstruction constitution.

The Bourbon constitution of 1875 was a victory for prosperous rural and small-town Alabamians who did not want to pay taxes to improve the lives of those less fortunate than themselves and who did not want to finance commercial development that did not benefit them directly. In particular, it was a victory for planters and merchants who dominated the Black Belt economy and government and who expected to maintain that domination (along with their influence on the state level) by controlling the black vote in their region.



Basic principles of redemption

1. Laissez-faire—lower taxes for large landowners and an end to most social programs

2. White supremacy—included legally restricting the actions of freedmen

3. New governments

A. Cut back on education and other

social programs

B. Embezzlement and bribery continued

C. Small white farmers neglected


Industrialization after Reconstruction (AHSGE): Although capital was insufficient and industrialization would lag in the South, The founding of Birmingham is the best example of the development of a New South economy based upon industrialism


Race relations (AHSGE): during this time period was characterized segregation and disfranchisement laws and by brutal acts of mob violence (lynchings) against southern blacks.

Schools (AHSGE): during this time period were segregated, in part, because of the court case Plessy v. Ferguson (‘separate but equal doctrine”).

Examples: schools, churches, and family

Churches (AHSGE): became more segregated as Blacks sought to exercise their newly won independence and power, while whites sought to retain their privilege


The story of the church in the years following slavery is one of a mass exodus from white churches into black denominations. Blacks sought to exercise their newly won independence and power, while whites sought to retain their privilege. This struggle played itself out in the church, the center of community life for both blacks and whites in the South. Among the many choices freed people made, choosing a denominational affiliation became the most important - and, potentially, the most dangerous, as choosing the wrong denomination risked provoking the ire of former slavemasters and their confederates. The Southern Methodist Episcopal Church had been the church most enslaved people attended. It claimed 208,000 black members. A year after the Civil War ended, only one-quarter of them remained. The African Methodist Episcopal (AME) and AME Zion established hierarchies of black bishops, deacons, ministers, and pastors that made them, effectively, churches with the soul of a nation. it soon became the most popular church among the freed people. When the Southern Baptist Convention first organized in 1845, black Baptists outnumbered whites, even though blacks weren't given the same rights and privileges. In 1862, one quarter of the four million freed people called themselves Baptist.


What were the laws called passed in southern states after Reconstruction that stripped African Americans of basic rights like voting? 

Jim Crow laws (AHSGE): enforced segregation

examples of Jim Crow laws


Blacks face severe hardships

1. 15th Amendment subverted through intimidation, loss of jobs, eviction from tenant farms, poll taxes, literacy tests, property requirement, and voter fraud

2. 14th Amendment subverted through intimidation, loss of jobs, eviction from tenant farms and Slaughterhouse cases

3. Slaughterhouse cases—Supreme Court said the federal government was obliged to protect only basic rights of national citizenship, and it did not have to protectsuch rights against state violations

4. Racism in the South including KKK and in the 1890s, and avg of 187 blacks lynched a year.



CA. 1880S TO WORLD WAR ONE In 1860 the South had 76% of personal

income per capita as a percentage of

the U.S. average. In 1880 and 1900,

southerners only held 51% of per

capita national wealth, and in 1920

only 62%. 



BY DECADE:1860: 5, 385,000 bales1870: 3, 011,000 bales1880: 5, 709,000 bales1890: 7,363,000 bales1900: 9,207,000 bales1910: 11,015,000 balesTobacco production followed a similar

pattern of postwar decline and then

rapid increase into the new century.


The literacy rate for southern whites

declined from 1875 to 1900, while the

literary rates for southern blacks

increased dramatically during this

period. Literacy rates for both shot up

from 1900 to 1920.Before 1900 there was not a singly

publicly supported high school for

blacks in the entire lower South, but

the literacy rate rose to include nearly

half the black population by 1915. 


In 1900, total income for blacks was

about 35% of total income of whites,



In 1880, there were 16, 317 cotton mill

workers in the South. In 1890 there

were 35,415 cotton mill workers. In

1900, there were 97,494 cotton mill

workers in the region. The capital

invested in cotton mills grew from

17,375, 897 in 1880 to 124, 596,874 in

1900. Value of cotton mill products

rose from 16,356,598 in 1880 to

95,002,059 in 1900.


What type of farming existed in the south after the war where farmers rented land to grow crops? 

Tenant farming (AHSGE): The “tenant” is the cultivator of the land but not the owner. In return for the right to use the land, the tenant owes a rent.


From 1880 to 1900 the percentage of

white farmers in tenant of

sharecropping situations rose, the

percentage of landowners among

white farmers declined. Among blacks,

the percentage of landowners rose in

the Upper South and declined in the

Lower South. 


What type of farming existed in the south after the war where farmers were forced to share crops with landowners? 


Sharecropping (AHSGE): Farmers work a piece of land for a fixed share of the crop (usually ½).

It required no advance expenditures for landlord and helped share the risk of crop failures or fallen prices

However, it rarely led to ownership or land and often led to deep debts

sharecroppers, 1939


On sharecropping W. E. B. Bois once wrote that

"[t]he slave went free; stood for a brief

moment in the sun; then moved back again toward slavery."


Fifty years after the Civil War, 89% of

African Americans still lived in the

South, while 1.5 million blacks moved

to urban areas within the South. 

From 1900 to 1920, the number of

workers in manufacturing in the South

grew from 627, 000 to 1.3 million, and

the population of the urban South rose

from 3 million to 5.3 million, a rate of

increase faster than in the nation as a



Between 1882 and 1951, over 4,900

people were lynched in the U.S.; over

85% were black. 80% of lynchings

were in the South. Until 1908, more

than one hundred people a year were


V, 1

11th Grade TERMS!

STANDARD V, OBJECTIVE 1. Identify and evaluate the events that led to the settlement of the West.

• Identify and explain the closing of the frontier and the transition

from an agrarian society to an industrial nation during the 1800s.


New states (AHSGE): With the removal of Native Americans to reservations, the western settlement movement (especially from 1865-1890) would continue and lead to the creation of several new states.


--Indian tribes

Army/Native American conflict: (AHSGE) Army encouraged white hunters to kill buffalo to end Native American nomadic life and force Native Americans onto reservations.

What animal was hunted and heavily relied upon by Plains Indians? 


BUFFALO ANNIHILATION: (AHSGE)U.S. policy to destroy buffalo in order to end the nomadic way of life for Plains Indians


Brains - hide, preparation

  • Skull - ceremonies,
  • sun dance, prayer
  • Horns - cups, fire
  • carrier, powderhorn,
  • spoons, ladles, toys
  • headdresses, signals,
  •  D. Tongue - best part
  • E. Beard - ornamentation
  • F.Rawhide - containers, clothing, headdresses, food, medicine bags, shields,buckets,
  • moccasin soles, rattles, drums, drumsticks, splints, cinches, ropes, thongs, saddles,
  • stirrups, knife cases, bull boats, quirts, armbands, lance cases, horse masks,
  • horse forehead ornaments, bullet pouches, belts
  • G. Buckskin - moccasin tops, cradles, winter robes, bedding, breechclouts, shirts,
  • leggings, belts, dresses, pipe bags, pouches, paint bags, quivers, tipi covers, gun
  • cases, lance covers, coup flag covers, dolls
  • H. Hoof & Feet - glue, rattles
  • I. Meat - (every part eaten) pemmican (converted), hump ribs - jerky
  • (converted), inner parts eaten on the spot

This is why the Buffalo was important to

Native Americans:


J. Four Chambered Stomach - first stomach content: frostbite & skin diseases,

  • liner: container for carrying and storing water, cooking vessel
  • L. Bladder - sinew pouches, quill pouches, small medicine bags
  • M. Paunch - lining for buckets, cups, basins, dishes
  • N. Skin of hind leg - moccasins or boots
  • Buffalo Chips - fuel, signals, ceremonial smoking
  • P. Tail - medicine switch, fly brush, lodge exterior decorations, whips
  • Bones - knives, arrowheads (ribs) , shovels, splints, winter sleds, arrow
  • straighteners, saddle trees, war clubs, scrapers (ribs), quirts, awls, paint brushes
  • (hipbones), game dice
  • Muscles - sinew: bows, thread, arrows, cinches, glue
  • Hair - headdresses, saddle pad filler, pillows, ropes, ornaments, halters, medicine
  • balls
  •  T. Whole Animal - totem, clan symbol, white buffalo sacred, adult yellow rare-prized

Starting in 1865, in 21 years the Buffalo population would go from fifteen million


600 by 1886


Many Native Americans were forced to live on?


What great Apache leader surrendered to the U.S. in 1886? 


  Custer and his cavalry were destroyed by the who at what battle?

Sioux, Little Big Horn


Who was the leader of the Sioux nation at the above battle? 

Sitting Bull

The United States government attempted to settle Indians on plots of land to farm with what act? 

Dawes Act

What event resulted in over 200 unarmed Sioux being massacred by U.S. troops in 1890? 

Massacre at Wounded Knee


- Settlement of the Midwest/immigrant movement

How had the plow improved during the late 1800s? 


Steel plow: (AHSGE) made it possible to cut through the tough plains grass and root system.

  • By the 1860s, farmers on the Great Plains were using newly designed steel plows, seed drills, reapers, and threshing machines.

Windmill: (AHSGE) allowed farmers to pump up water to supplement the

scant rainfall of the Great



revolver: (AHSGE) In 1836, Samuel Colt was granted a U.S. patent for the Colt revolver, which was equipped with a revolving cylinder containing five or six bullets and an innovative cocking device

“the gun that won the West.“Single Action Army Model 1873 Peacemaker, designed to use metallic ammunition that contained its own primer.

"Abe Lincoln may have freed all men, but Sam Colt made them equal."


Why did the open ranges used by cattle disappear? 

Barbed Wire (AHSGE): invented by Glidden and helped end the open range.

see notes


  What 19th century technological innovation led to the rapid settlement of the western territories?

How did cattle ranchers move their beef back to eastern markets? 

  • Railroads provided easy access to the Great Plains (AHSGE).
  • Railroad companies sold land along the rail lines at low prices and provided credit. 

Railroad improvement and expansion:

led to a tremendous drop in shipping

costs and opened up a new network

of markets.

Freight rates that had been $60 per ton

on the wagon train and then $30 per ton on the toll road, dropped to $12 per ton by railroad.


- Changing role of the American farmers

EARLY MECHANIZATION OF AGRICULTURE: allowed for larger crops to be harvested and fewer laborers (AHSGE)

What types of new equipment was developed for farming in the late 1800s? 

cornhuskers, cornbinders, steam powered threshers


  List three complaints of farmers in the late 1800s. 

FARMERS' GRIEVANCES: Included overcharging by railroads to ship farm goods, money supply issues (deflation), tariffs, and falling crop prices (AHSGE)

This will lead to ….


How did the farmers organize themselves to fight big business? 

What was the name given to the farmers who organized themselves politically during this period? 

American Agricultural Rebellion: which will include the Grange movement, the Farmers’ Alliance movement and the Populist movement (AHSGE).


Populist Movement (AHSGE): in the 1890s, thisemerged to increase the political power of farmers and to work for legislation for farmers’ interests.

Who was the presidential candidate in 1896 for the Populists? 

James Weaver


Alabama farmers faced additional economic problems (AHSGE):

    • prevalence of sharecropping and tenancy;
    • historic divisions between big planters of the Black Belt and Tennessee Valley and the small farmers of the Hill Country and Wiregrass;
    • an emerging urban industrial society based on iron and coal;
    • an emerging labor movement, especially among coal miners and the Knights of Labor;
    • powerful railroads, especially the L & N and its connection with coal and iron companies.

STANDARD V, OBJECTIVE 2. Evaluate the concepts, developments, and consequences of

industrialization and urbanization.

V, 2

• Describe the concepts, developments, and consequences of

industrialization and urbanization.

--Geographic factors that influenced industrialization


NATURAL RESOURCES:(AHSGE) U.S. abundance of natural resources helped U.S. to industrialize.

Geography: U.S. geography played a factor that influenced industrialization (AHSGE).

  • For example: mountains, rivers
  • - Sources of power for new industries
  • COAL

--Sources of power for new industries

Oil: (AHSGE) became a readily available source of fuel for light, lubrication of machineries, and fuel to run machinery

Triumph Hill, PA. Penn. was responsible for 1/2 of the WORLD'S production of oil until the East Texas oil boom of 1901


--Communication revolution

Transatlantic cable: (AHSGE) After several failures, Europe and North America were finally connected and allowed the two continents to communicate almost instantaneously

From Heart's Content, Cyrus Field sent the following message on July 27, 1866...

"We arrived here at nine o'clock this morning. All well. Thank God, the cable is laid, and is in perfect working order."


Who invented the telephone?

Telephone (AHSGE) : Alexander Graham Bell patented the “talking telegraph” and set up the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (see notes)


The first phone call was Alexander Graham Bell saying “Come here, Watson, I want you.”

  • In 1877 Bell and his associates organized the Bell Telephone Company, which later became the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T).
  • In the late 1800s, Thomas Alva Edison invented or perfected the phonograph, the light bulb, the electric generator, the dictaphone, and the motion picture. Edison later set up Menlo Park 

What two energy sources were used to power factories in the late 1800s? 

Westinghouse and Alternating currents

Who invented the light bulb and electric generators? 

  • In the late 1800s, Thomas Alva Edison invented or perfected the phonograph, the light bulb, the electric generator, the dictaphone, and the motion picture. Edison later set up Menlo Park 
  • In 1882 an Edison Company began to transform American society when it started supplying electric power to customers in New York City.

Edison’s voice

Thomas Edison


Radio: (AHSGE) Guglielmo Marconi invented his spark transmitter with antenna at his home in Bologna, Italy, in December 1894.


-- Early industry/role of labor in Alabama (Note: Alabama maps may be used)

What types of industry was Alabama involved in during the late 1800s? 

Iron/steel: Alabama played a significant role in the development of the American iron and steel industry after the Civil War because of its natural and human resources. Birmingham was particularly important because of the natural resources of Jones Valley, in which it is located. (AHSGE)


Coal mining/Railroads: Alabama economics were changing with an emerging urban industrial society based on iron and coal, an emerging labor movement, especially among coal miners and the Knights of Labor, and

powerful railroads, especially the L & N and its connection with coal and iron companies.


Textile (AHSGE):In Alabama, the total capital invested in 1890 was about $2.9 million, and a decade later the number had risen to $11.6 million. Most mills came to the South because of incentives such as abundant resources and cheap labor, and in addition, some southern cities and entrepreneurs saw industry as the best way to become more prosperous. The most important factor for growth, however, was cheap labor. Typically, in 1880, the wages in southern textile mills were 30 percent to 50 percent less than those in the North.

Mills drew a labor force primarily from poor farmers who moved to escape the evils of sharecropping, tenantry, and the crop lien that had developed after the Civil War. The security of weekly pay, a life of lighter work, and better quarters lured farm families to the mill village. The "family wage" system continued the farm labor pattern where everyone worked to


help provide for the family. The prevalence of the family wage system can be seen in the percentages of genders and age groups working in Alabama textiles in 1900. Of the employees, 38 percent were men, 33 percent were women, and 29 percent were children under sixteen. This new work force settled in numerous textile mills throughout the South.

Exporting this textile was obviously important to Alabama. There was one cotton textile plant in Alabama, a huge plant, 25,000 spindles. The entire product of this Cordova, Alabama textile plant, the entire product went to China.


Timber (AHSGE): Very important to Alabama’s economy.The production of saw timber in the South went from 1.6 billion board feet in 1880 to an estimated 15.4 billion board feet in 1920 (Williams, Pg. 238). New technology was immediately applied to southern sawmills; the use of steam engines and circular saws replaced the old waterwheel sawmills often working in unison with gristmills.

Alabama like most of the South was seeking industry and was lobbing to make the southern forests available to the lumber industry moving out of the Lake States. Richard Nassey writes “ In the 1880’s all the ingredients for a prosperous business seemed to be at hand – abundant natural resources, cheap and plentiful labor, and a rising demand for the product” (Nassey, Pg 174). The South’s land ownership patterns were also favorable to the lumber industry. The South allowed for the purchase and consolidation of millions of acres into private


ownership (Williams). William explains how the South had allowed 925 people to own 336.3 billion board feet of timber or half of the existing timber in the South, that is 925 individuals owned 46.6 million acres (Williams). These factors combined to make the South the next big timber production center.

Early competition in the sawmilling industry kept prices down. Sawmills ranged from large to small “peckerwood” mills (Nassey). The investment in sawmills ranged from over one million dollars to a few thousand dollars, for the small portable sawmills (Nassey). Like in agriculture entry into the sawmilling industry was easy at this period in time, but the lack of education and money forced producers to sell their outputs immediately, regardless of price (Nassey). This like in agriculture forced an overproduction which, suppressed timber prices and kept competition and the rate of failure high


(Nassey). This was the era of the small lumbermen; numerous markets and an endless timber resource in an undeveloped region favored the small producer. The success of these small operations would later suffer from further advances in technology, and the development of the region and the transportation systems.

The South reached its maximum timber production in 1920 at which time the Pacific Northwest became the leader (Williams).


Convict leasing (AHSGE): Convict leasing began in Alabama in 1846 and lasted until July 1, 1928, when Herbert Hoover was vying for the White House. In 1883, about 10 percent of Alabama's total revenue was derived from convict leasing. In 1898, nearly 73 percent of total revenue came from this same source. Death rates among leased convicts were approximately 10 times higher than the death rates of prisoners in non-lease states. In 1873, for example, 25 percent of all black leased convicts died. Possibly, the greatest impetus to the continued use of convict labor in Alabama was the attempt to depress the union movement.


Monopoly: occurs when one company gains control of an entire market (AHSGE). 

  • In the late 1800s, Americans became suspicious of large corporations and feared monopolies. 
  • Many states made it illegal for a company to own stock in another company without permission from the state legislature.

MERGER: The combining of two companies to make a larger company (AHSGE)


What were the captains of industry referred to during the late 1800s? 

Robber Barons: (AHSGE)A term for business leaders who the American people did not trust.

Because of the change in industries, people began to describe the industrial leaders as either:

Robber Barons OR

Captains of Industry:(AHSGE;)Another name for business leaders who provided money for growth and also funded many philanthropic activities (as compared to “robber barons”


List two important captains of industry during this time period. 

Andrew Carnegie and J.D. Rockefeller


Andrew Carnegie:. founded a steel company in Pittsburgh (AHSGE)

  • He opened a steel company in 1875 and quickly adapted his steel mills to use the Bessemer process.

In 1898, although Carnegie Steel’s output had risen threefold over the previous few years, the number of workers needed to produce the steel had decreased by 400. The use of electricity to drive automatic machinery was largely responsible for the decline in the workforce.

  • Carnegie Library of Congress

Andrew “The first man gets the oyster, the

second man gets the shell.” see notes


What idea was promoted by Andrew Carnegie that stated the wealthy should give back riches to the community? 

“Gospel of Wealth:” (AHSGE) Carnegie's belief that the wealthy should give back some of their wealth for the betterment of humankind

  • Before he started giving his money away, he was worth, in today’s dollars, $110 billion and the second richest man in history. Remember Bill Gates is worth $60 Billion and the 5th (behind John Jacob Astor) richest man in history

return to slide 414


John D. Rockefeller: formed the Standard Oil Company (AHSGE) using horizontal consolidation and trusts as a single unit. When he retired he was worth, in today’s dollars, $200 billion

He was the richest man in history.

See notes


The company almost immediately began using a variety of cutthroat techniques to acquire or destroy competitors and thereby "consolidate" the industry. They included:

  • (1) Temporarily undercutting the prices of competitors until they either went out of business or sold out to Standard Oil.
  • (2) Buying up the components needed to make oil barrels in order to prevent competitors from getting their oil to customers.
  • (3) Using its large and growing volume of oil shipments to negotiate an alliance with the railroads that gave it secret rebates and thereby reduced its effective shipping costs to a level far below the rates charged to its competitors.
  • (4) Secretly buying up competitors and then having officials from those companies spy on and give advance warning of deals being planned by other competitors.

(5) Secretly buying up or creating new oil-related companies, such as pipeline and engineering firms, that appeared be independent operators but which gave Standard Oil hidden rebates.

  • (6) Dispatching thugs who used threats and physical violence to break up the operations of competitors who could not otherwise be persuaded

So the federal government breaks it up or “trustbusting.”


Standard Oil of Ohio - or Sohio now part of BP

  • Standard Oil of Indiana - or Stanolind, renamed Amoco (American Oil Co.) - now part of BP
  • Standard Oil of New York - or Socony and merged with Vacuum - renamed Mobil, now part of ExxonMobil
  • Standard Oil of New Jersey - or Esso (S.O. or Eastern States Standard Oil) - renamed Exxon, now part of ExxonMobil. Standard Trust companies Carter Oil, Imperial Oil (Canada), and Standard of Louisiana were kept as part of S.O. of New Jersey after the breakup.
  • Standard Oil of California - or Socal - renamed Chevron
  • Standard's Atlantic and the independent company Richfield merged to form Atlantic Richfield or Arco, now part of BP. Atlantic operations were spun off and bought by Sunoco.
  • Standard Oil of Kentucky - or Kyso was acquired by Standard Oil of California - currently Chevron
  • Continental Oil Company - or Conoco now part of ConocoPhillips
  • The Ohio Oil Company - more commonly referred to as "The Ohio", and marketed gasoline under the Marathon name. Company is now known as Marathon Oil Company, and was often a rival with in-state Standard spinoff Sohio

--Ideologies of business

What theory was used to promote competition in the marketplace? 

Social Darwinism (AHSGE): Charles Darwin had argued that plant and animal life evolved over the years by the process of natural selection. In this process, those species that cannot adapt to the environment in which they live gradually die out, while those that adapt best thrive. Social Darwinists took this theory of biology, intended to explain developments over millions of years, and applied it to human society, arguing that human society also evolved through competition and natural selection. They argued that society progressed and became better because only the fittest people survived


Gospel of Wealth (AHSGE): see slide 406

What novelist wrote many fictional stories promoting the "rags to riches" theme? 

Horatio Alger (AHSGE): wrote “rags-to-riches” novels


Urbanization in the late 1800s: (AHSGE) (Note: photos, political cartoons, and graphs may be used)

City services had a difficult time keeping up with the tremendous population growth. Cities in the late 1800s and early 1900s often lacked central planning. There were few sewer systems or clean water. Many roads were not yet paved. There were few building codes in place to protect the people living in them, and fire and police services were limited. Cities were rife with political corruption and disease. These problems would lead to calls for reform by Progressives.


Farm to factories: (AHSGE) millions of Americans left farms that were unprofitable or farm machines had replaced them as workers; they then moved to cities and worked in factories.

Child labor (AHSGE): was used in factories because of their small size and cheap wages; parents often allowed children to work long work days for the extra income. SEE NOTES

Child Labor: (AHSGE) had been abolished in many states during the progressive age with the help of labor reformers

Children’s Bureau (AHSGE): investigated and publicized problems with child labor


John Spargo’s The Bitter Cry of the Children “Work in the coal breakers is exceedingly hard and dangerous. Crouched over the chutes, the boys sit hour after hour, picking out the pieces of slate and other refuse from the coal as it rushes past to the washers. From the cramped position they have to assume, most of them become more or less deformed and bent-backed like old men…. for ten hours at a stretch, for sixty cents a day.


Immigrant labor: (AHSGE) with their large numbers, helped make sure there was not shortage of labor in the U.S., forcing many workers to take it or leave it.

Immigration restrictions (AHSGE) In the late 1800s, as the number of immigrant continued to increase, there were more calls for immigrant restrictions, including the Chinese Exclusion Act and the Gentlemen’s Agreement (with Japan).

Labor unions (AHSGE): often opposed immigration, arguing that most immigrants would work for low wages


What types of labor problems did early unions try and correct? 

Unsafe working conditions, low wages, shorter working hours (AHSGE)

Labor unions: (AHSGE) because of growing discontent among workers, many workers chose for change by coming together and negotiating as one group.

Labor strikes: (AHSGE) the main weapon unions would use to get their demands.


• Identify, explain, and relate the accomplishments and limitations of

the Progressive Movement.

What was the movement called which promoted change in government, business, and social welfare? 

Progressivism: (AHSGE) the collective social and political reform ideas in the late 1800s and early 1900s including protecting workers, welfare programs.

Progressives: (AHSGE) focused on government reform, business regulations, and social reforms; had a strong faith in science and expertise




Role of women (AHSGE):With the growing demand for equality and the right to vote, plus the changing role of women due to the industrial revolution and growing middle class, society began to reexamine the role of women in U.S. society.


What did Theodore Roosevelt call journalists who were intent on exposing corruption at the turn of the century?

Muckraker: (AHSGE) writers who exposed corruption and scandal. Their focus was on large corporations, government, and social problems.

Examples include the following people and issues:


Jacob Riis, How The Other Half Lives

photographs and stories about the wretched conditions in the city slums.


Lincoln Steffens’ The Shame of the Cities (1904) “The machine controls the whole process of voting, and practices fraud at

every stage. The assessor's list is the voting

list, and the assessor is the machine's

man. . . . The assessor pads the list with the names of dead dogs, children, and

non-existent persons.




  What journalist wrote an expose on Standard Oil? 

IDA TARBELL (AHSGE): revealed the abuses committed by the Standard Oil trust.

“ Every great campaign against rival interests

which the Standard Oil Company has carried

on has been … to build up and sustain a

monopoly in the oil industry.” History of

the Standard Oil Company 1904


What novel was highly acclaimed for exposing problems in the meatpacking industry? 

The Jungle by Upton Sinclair (AHSGE):described his observations of Chicago slaughterhouses; led to the Meat Inspection Act


“There were the men in the picklerooms for

instance… scarce a one to these that had not

some spot of horror on his person. Let a man so

much as scrape his finger pushing a truck in the

pickerooms and he might have a sore that would

put him out of the world; all the joints in his

fingers might be eaten by the acid, one by one.

Of the butchers and floorsmen, the beef-boners

and trimmers, and all those who used knives, you

could scarcely find a person who had the use of

his thumb; time and time again the base of it had

been slashed, till it was a mere lump of flesh

against which the man pressed the knife to hold

it. The hands of these men would be crisscrossed


with cuts, until you could no longer pretend to count them or to trace them. They would have no nails, - they had worn them off pulling hides; their knuckles were swollen so that their fingers spread out like a fan.”

There was never the least attention paid to what

was cut up for sausage; there would come all the

way back from Europe old sausage that had been

rejected, and that was moldy and white – it would

be dosed with borax and glycerine, and dumped

into the hoppers, and made over again for home


There would be meat that had tumbled out on

the floor, in the dirt and sawdust, where the


workers had tramped and spit uncounted billions

of consumption germs. There would be meat

stored in great piles in rooms; and the water from

leaky roofs would drip over it, and thousands of

rats would race about on it. It was too dark in

these storage places to see well, but a man could

run his hand over these piles of meat and sweep

off handfuls of the dried dung of rats. These rats

were nuisances, and the packers would put

poisoned bread out for them; they would die, and

then rats, bread, and meat would go into the

hoppers together. This is no fairy story and no


joke; the meat would be shoveled into carts, and

the man who did the shoveling would not trouble

to lift out a rat even when he saw one – there

were things that went into the sausage in

comparison with which a poisoned rat was a


Under the system of rigid economy which the

packers enforced, there were some jobs that it

only paid to do once in a long time, and among

these was the cleaning out of the waste barrels.

Every spring they did it; and in the barrels would

be dirt and rust and old nails and stale water –

and cartload after cartload of it would be taken


up and dumped into the hoppers with fresh meat,

and sent out to the public's breakfast. Some of it

they would make into "smoked" sausage but as

the smoking took time, and was therefore

expensive, they would call upon their chemistry

department, and preserve it with borax and color

it with gelatine to make it brown. All of their

sausage came out of the same bowl, but when

they came to wrap it they would stamp some of

it "special," and for this they would charge two

cents more a pound.


Public education: (AHSGE) the demand for skilled (educated) workers led to a greater demand on building schools and colleges in the late 1800s.

  • Horace Mann: (AHSGE) sometimes called the father of American public school education
  • Campaigned for Education in Mass.
  • Established Schools For Teacher Training.
  • Established School District Libraries
  • Won Financial Backing for Public Education.
  • Extended His Influence Beyond Massachusetts.

BOOKER T. WASHINGTON: founder of Tuskegee Institute (AHSGE) argued African Americans should focus

on economic equality

through vocational work,

rather than political


"I have learned that success is to be measured not so much by the position that one has reached in life as by the obstacles which he has overcome while trying to succeed.


Tuskegee Institute (AHSGE): In 1881, the legislature approved the establishing of the Tuskegee State Normal School to educate teachers. A young Virginia educator, Booker T. Washington, who came as principal to Tuskegee from Hampton Institute was recruited. Washington opened the school on July 4, 1881. SEE NOTES

What African American man was famous for his work as an agricultural scientist? 

George Washington Carver (AHSGE):Headed Tuskegee's Department of Agriculture, and it was here that Carver conducted his research and experiments on typical Southern plants, especially peanuts and sweet potatoes


Who was the African American who encouraged blacks to learn a trade and also founded the Tuskegee Institute in 1881? 

Booker T. Washington, an African American educator, urged fellow African Americans to concentrate on achieving economic goals rather than legal or political ones (AHSGE). This idea was also called

Atlanta Exposition/Compromise: (AHSGE) African Americans should pursue economic goals before political goals


Who was the African-American who encouraged blacks to seek social justice and equality and was an early leader of the NAACP?

W.E.B. DuBois (AHSGE): was particularly concerned with protecting and exercising voting rights for African Americans

Washington’s Atlanta Compromise was challenged by W.E.B. Du Bois, the leader of African American activists born after the Civil War. 


Du Bois said that white Southerners continued to take away the civil rights of African Americans, even though they were making progress in education and vocational training.

  • He believed that African Americans had to demand their rights, especially voting rights, to gain full equality.

  What was the movement that DuBois lead? 

Niagara Movement: (AHSGE) Rejected Washington’s Atlanta Compromise and formed the NAACP.

NAACP: a legal organization, would be formed, in part, to convince Congress to pass anti-lynching legislation (AHSGE)


NAACP: greatest political triumphs occurred in 1930 with the defeat of a racist judge nominated for the Supreme Court (AHSGE).

  • The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) battled against segregation and discrimination. 
  • The NAACP’s efforts led to the passage of anti-lynching legislation in the House of Representatives, but the Senate defeated the bill. SEE NOTES

What famous Supreme Court decision upheld segregation in 1896? 

  • Plessy v. Ferguson (AHSGE): Supreme Court ruling which endorsed “separate but equal” facilities for African Americans.
  • This ruling established the legal basis for discrimination in the South for over 50 years.

Homer Plessy: African American arrested for riding in a “whites-only” railroad car


Therefore, across the country, especially the South . . . .



The schools for white children and the schools for negro children shall be

conducted separately. (Florida)

Books shall not be interchangeable between the white and colored schools,

but shall continue to be used by the race first using them. (North Carolina)

The officer in charge shall not bury, or allow to be buried, any colored

persons upon ground set apart or used for the burial of white persons.


The white and colored militia shall be separately enrolled, and shall

never be compelled to serve in the same organization.(North Carolina)

The conductors or managers on all such railroad shall have power, and

are hereby required, to assign to each white or colored passenger his or

her respective car, coach or compartment. If the passenger fails to

disclose his race, the conductor and managers, acting in good faith,

shall be the sole judges of his race. (Virginia)


Alabama Constitution of 1901(AHSGE) which was drawn up to continue to keep taxes low and governmental services minimal. It guaranteed that the propertied classes stayed in power the vote was taken away from many poor whites and African Americans.

  • It was ratified in one of the most corrupt elections in Alabama history.
  • Today, having been amended more than 650 times (as of1999), it is one of the longest constitutions in the western world.

--Progressive Constitutional Amendments

What amendment to the Constitution introduced an income tax? 

16th Amendment (AHSGE): Allowed for income tax.

What amendment made the election of senators by popular vote? 

17th Amendment (AHSGE): Allowed for the direct election, by the people, of the U.S. Senate.

19th Amendment: Gave women the right to vote (AHSGE) 


What amendment introduced prohibition as a national law? 

It was one of the Progressive Amendments!

Eighteenth Amendment: prohibited alcohol (AHSGE) Many felt prohibition would reduce unemployment, domestic violence, and poverty. 

  • The VolsteadAct purpose was to enforce prohibition and made the enforcement of Prohibition the responsibility of the U.S. Treasury Department. 

--Progressive leadership of Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson

What president introduced important conservation methods to preserve millions of acres of western lands? 

Theodore Roosevelt (AHSGE): warned William Howard Taft to stay away from tariff reform because it would split the Republican Party. Later, Theodore Roosevelt tried to win the Republican nomination from William Howard Taft in the 1912 election because he believed that Taft had failed to live up to progressive ideals.


Conservation movement: As Americans realized that the countries resources were limited, a movement began to conserve lands, animals, and other natural resources (AHSGE)

  • President Theodore Roosevelt urged Americans to conserve natural resources. 
  • In 1902 Roosevelt supported the passage of the Newlands Reclamation Act, which authorized the use of federal funds from public land sales to pay for irrigation and land development projects. 

Roosevelt appointed Gifford Pinchot to head the United States Forest Service to carefully manage the timber resources in the West.

  • Pinchot and his department created regulations controlling lumbering on federal lands. 
  • Roosevelt’s actions during his presidency caused Americans to increasingly look to the federal government to solve the nation’s economic and social problems. 
  • The executive branch of government greatly increased in power.

Labor reform (AHSGE): Although most labor reforms focused on child labor, other reforms included limiting women’s working hours and the establishment the Departments of Labor and Commerce to the Cabinet.


What three parties entered a candidate for president in 1912?        Who won? 

Election of 1912 (AHSGE): Split of the Republican party between Taft and Roosevelt leads to a Wilson (Democrat) victory.

Presidential Election Results:


William H. Taft 7,676,320 321

William J. Bryan 6,412,294 162


Woodrow Wilson 6,296,547 435

Theodore Roosevelt 4,118,571 88

William H. Taft 3,486,720 8

  • 1912 election

Woodrow Wilson (AHSGE): as governor of New Jersey, he introduced many progressive reforms which he would continue as President.


What act was passed during Wilson's tenure that was intended to break up monopolies? 

CLAYTON ANTITRUST ACT (AHSGE): strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act and favored unions by exempting them from anti-trust laws.

It put a ban on tying agreements and price discrimination


What commission was set up by Wilson to monitor the practices of businesses? 

Federal Trade Commission (AHSGE): investigated companies and issued “cease and desist” orders against companies involved in unfairtradepractices. 


How did Wilson change the banking system in the United States in 1913? 

Federal Reserve: government agency that today helps regulate the economy (AHSGE) Originally, it was designed to restore faith in the banking by requiring banks to keep some of their deposits in a reserve to protect customers’ money.

  • There had not been a central bank since the 1830s, when economic depressions had caused small banks to close, wiping out customers’ savings. 

The information herein this slide show is from a collection of sources including, but not limited to, Enduring Vision, third ed., Charles Boyer (especially material from US HY I, tenth grade); America: Pathways to the Present 2000 edition, Andrew Cayton; American Vision Volume 2, 2005 edition, Joyce Appleby, including American Vision PowerPoints. Particular web-sites used are listed in the notes section. The questions are courtesy of Montevallo High School.