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What are two messages of this cartoon?

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  1. What are two messages of this cartoon?

  2. What are two messages of this cartoon?

  3. Steps to the Political, Economic and Military Division of Europe Part II

  4. Moving Towards Confrontation and Containment

  5. The Truman Doctrine • Truman speech March 1947: US obligation to support free peoples who are resisting subjugation • Truman Doctrine • Turkey and Greece • Radical change from isolationism • Soviets saw this as evidence the US sought further influence • Truman influenced by Kennan and Iron Curtain speech • Beginning of containment • Would draw US into conflicts well beyond Europe

  6. The Marshall Plan • 1947, George Marshall into Sec. of State office • Thought Western Europe needed immediate help • Economic aid in recovering areas • Pattern along the Iron Curtain

  7. Dollar Imperialism • Would the Marshall Plan involved the Soviets? • Strict criteria to qualify for aid • Must be able to investigate financial records of applicant countries • Stated Aims • Revive European working economies for political and social stability • Safeguard the future of the US economy • Initiative must come from Europe • Will become reality in 1948 with the Czech Coup • $17 Billion

  8. Soviet Reaction and Response • Called it American Dollar Imperialism • Trying to establish European empire • Methods of dependence • Response was Molotov Plan • Bilateral agreements aimed to tie economies of Eastern Europe to the USSR • COMECON Council for Mutual Economic Assistance • Stimulate and control their development and support collectivization and heavy industry

  9. Cominform and the Two Camps Doctrine • Two developments with Soviets • Cominform • Communist Information Bureau, 1947 • Increase Stalin’s control over Communist parties in other countries • Two Camps Doctrine • Stalin speech, 1946 • Two Camps in Europe opposing each other • USSR and Eastern Europe • Also sympathetic nations in the Middle East and Southeast Asia

  10. Red Army Occupation • Controlled Eastern Europe with satellite empire • Tied together and to Moscow with: • Soviet military power • Salami tactics • State police and security/spy networks • COMECON • Soviet control throughout Eastern Europe, other than Czech • Breach of Yalta and Potsdam

  11. Mr. X Article • Kennan article in Time in 1947 • Wrote of need for long-term, patient, firm containment of rival Soviet Union • Influence over American public opinion • Containment seemed essential

  12. Czechoslovakian Coup • Czech moving towards the West in 1948 • Interest in Marshall Plan • West felt bad for Munich • Stalin organized pressure on non-communists • 12 resigned, Czech President Benes agreed to communism • Foreign Minister found dead • Truman calls it a coup • Pushed Marshall plan through Congress • Bloody purges there throughout Eastern Bloc rest of the year • Weakness of Stalin was in Berlin

  13. Berlin Crisis of 1948 • Germany under four zones under ACC • One economic unit • By 1949, two separate states

  14. Why Did Unification of Germany Fail?

  15. Germany’s Strategic Position • Geographic, central position and economic potential • USSR did not want a resurgent Germany • Similar to France • Sought reparations • US sought to rebuilt Germany • UK with them • Lack of trust developing

  16. Specific Disputes Inside Germany • Reparations were a problem • Potsdam-USSR was to take industrial equipment from West Germany to provide those zones with food from the East • Didn’t deliver enough, so US stopped supplies • Battle over coal • 1947, American and British zones merged into Bizonia

  17. Specific Disputes Inside Germany • Stalin planning on incorporating reunified Germany as early as 1945 • Army in East, Communist Party of Germany in other zones • Not successful in the West • Minimal economic assistance and no democracy • Socialists then focused on the East

  18. Specific Disputes Inside Germany • Western powers also thinking about consolidating • London Conference of Ministers, 1947 • Meant to reconsider German peace treaty, whoops • London Conference, 1948 • France, Britain , U.S. created West German state, new currency • Stalin began a blockade of Berlin

  19. Berlin Blockade • Berlin 100 miles inside Soviet zone • Road, rail, air corridors had been established • Stalin’s transport restrictions • Total blockade in 1948 • Routes all closed • Electricity cut from East to West • Allies supplied Berlin through the air • Stalin ends blockade in 1949

  20. Results of Berlin Blockade • Division of Germany • Federal Republic of Germany in West, Sept. 1949 • German Democratic Republic in East • May have been preferable to the West • Continuation of four-power control in Berlin • Formation of NATO, Apr. 1949 • Military assistance to Europe • West Germany in 1954 • Soviet response is Warsaw Pact

  21. Conclusions • Europe clearly divided • Germany separated into two clear states • US abandoned isolationism • No peace treaty – Central Europe’s borders not formalizes • West unified against the USSR

  22. Implications • All conflicts take capitalism versus communism character • Containment brought US into Asia • UN never played a major role previously envisioned