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Technical Assistance Forum and. 30th Anniversary Celebration. of the Title VI Program. April 28 to May 1, 2008. Minneapolis , Minnesota. 2400 Mystic Lake Blvd . Prior Lake, MN. Meeting the Nutritional Needs of Tribal Elders. Floristene Johnson, MS, RD\LD Desoto, Texas. April 30, 2008.

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Technical Assistance Forum


30th Anniversary Celebration

of the Title VI Program

April 28 to May 1, 2008

Minneapolis, Minnesota

2400 Mystic Lake Blvd.

Prior Lake, MN

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Meeting the Nutritional Needs of Tribal Elders

Floristene Johnson, MS, RD\LD

Desoto, Texas

April 30,2008

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  • Learn about the nutritional needs of older adults and how to meet those needs.

  • Know how to identify and address some special nutritional needs of older adults. Weight control (+ or -)

    Sensory Changes in Older Adults

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What are the nutritional needs of Tribal Elders?

Dietary Reference Intakes

Age 51-70 Male

Vitamin A Thiamin Vitamin B 12

Vitamin D Riboflavin Potassium

Vitamin E Calcium Sodium

Vitamin K Folate Magnesium

Vitamin C Vitamin B6 Protein

Fat Carbohydrates Zinc

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What Happens as We Age

  • Basal Metabolism (+ or -_

  • Height

  • Weight

  • Hair

  • Skin

  • Eyes

  • Nose

  • Teeth

  • Ears

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Title III and VI of the Older Americans Act, as Amended (OAA)

states…a nutrition program

  • which, 5 or more days a week provides at least one hot or other appropriate meal per day

  • which shall be provided in congregate setting

  • which may include nutrition education and other appropriate nutrition services

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...a nutrition project shall____ (OAA)

  • provide meals that

    • Comply with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, published by the Secretary and the Secretary of Agriculture.

    • ...a nutrition project provides meals thatprovide to each participating older individual

      • a minimum of 33 1/3 percent of the Dietary Reference Intakes…, if the project provides one meal per day.

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  • a minimum of 66 2/3 percent of the daily (OAA)

    recommended dietary allowances … if the

    project provides two meals per day, and

  • 100 percent of the allowances if the project

    provides three meals per day, and

  • to the maximum extent practicable, are adjusted to

    meet any special dietary needs of program participants,

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Using the Dietary Guidelines (2005)To Meet the Nutritional Needs

Developed by the

  • United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)

  • United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)

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Dietary Guidelines For Americans Needs

41 Total Key Recommendations

23-General Population

18- Specific Populations

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DG Basics Needs

  • Meet nutrient needs by consuming foods

  • Use fortified foods and dietary supplements only in certain cases

  • Dietary supplements cannot replace a healthful diet.

  • The DGAs are for Americans 2 years and above.

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DGA- NeedsNine Focus Areas

  • Adequate Nutrients Within calorie Needs

  • Weight Management

  • Physical Activity

  • Food Groups To Encourage

  • Fats

  • Carbohydrates

  • Sodium and Potassium

  • Alcoholic Beverages

  • Food Safety

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  • Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods and beverages

  • Choose foods that limit the intake of saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, salt, and alcohol.

  • Meet recommended intakes within energy needs

  • * Over 50 – Consume Vitamin B12 in its crystalline form.

  • * Older Adults, people with dark skin should consume extra Vitamin D

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  • To maintain body weight in a healthy range,

  • To prevent gradual weight gain over time, make small decreases in calories and increase physical activity.

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Weight Management NeedsFor Special Populations

  • Those Who Need to Lose Weight –Aim for a slow and steady weight loss

  • Overweight with chronic diseases/medication – Consult doctor

  • Older adults. Participate in regular physical activity to reduce functional declines associated with aging and to achieve the other benefits of physical activity identified for

    all adults.

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Risks Associate with Excess Weight Needs

Excess body fat leads to a higher risk for

  • premature death

  • type 2 diabetes,

  • high blood pressure

  • high blood cholesterol and triglycerides

  • heart disease,

  • Stroke

  • gall bladder disease

  • respiratory dysfunction,

  • gout, arthritis, and certain kinds of cancers.

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Body Mass Index (BMI) Needs

Locate your height in the left-most column and read across the row for your height to your weight.

Follow the column of the weight up to the top row that lists the BMI.

  • A BMI under 19 is underweight,

  • 19 through 24 is the healthy weight range,

  • 25 through 29 is in the overweight range,

  • and a BMI of 30 and above is the obese range.

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  • Engage in regular physical activity and reduce sedentary activities

    Engage in at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity, above usual activity, at work or home on most days of the week.

  • Achieve physical fitness by including cardiovascular conditioning, stretching exercises for flexibility, and resistance exercises or calisthenics for muscle strength and endurance.

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  • Consume a sufficient amount of fruits and vegetables while staying within energy needs.

  • Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables each day. In particular, select from all five vegetable subgroups (dark green, orange, legumes, starchy vegetables, and other vegetables) several times a week.

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Consume 3 or more ounce-equivalents of whole-grain products per day, with the rest of the recommended grains coming from enriched or whole-grain products. In general, at least half the grains should come from whole grains.

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Consume 3 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk products.

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FATS Needs

  • Plan meals with less than 10 percent of calories from saturated fatty acids and less than 300 mg/day of cholesterol, and keep trans fatty acid consumption as low as possible.

  • Plan for the total fat intake to be between 20 to 35 percent of calories, with most fats coming from sources of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids

  • When selecting and preparing meat, poultry, dry beans, and milk or milk products, make choices that are lean, low-fat, or fat-free.

  • Choose products low in fats and oils.

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  • Choosefiber-rich fruits, vegetables, and whole grains often.

  • Choose and prepare foods and beverageswithlittle added sugars or caloric sweeteners

  • Reduce the incidence of dental caries by practicing good oral hygiene and consuming sugar- and starch-containing foods and beverages less frequently.

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  • Consume less than 2,300 mg (approximately 1 teaspoon of salt) of sodium per day.

  • Choose and prepare foods with little salt. At the same time, consume potassium-rich foods, such as fruits and vegetables

  • Individuals with hypertension, … older adults. Aim to consume

  • no more than 1,500 mg of sodium per day, and meet the potassium recommendation

  • (4,700 mg/day) with food.

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older adults, and those who are immunocompromised Needs.

  • Do not eat or drink raw (unpasteurized) milk or any products made from unpasteurized milk,

  • raw or partially cooked eggs or

  • foods containing raw eggs, raw or undercooked meat and poultry, raw or undercooked fish or shellfish,

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  • Those who choose to drink alcoholic beverages should do so sensibly and in moderation

  • Alcoholic beverages should not be consumed by some individuals, including individuals taking medications that can interact with alcohol, and those with specific medical conditions.

  • Alcoholic beverages should be avoided by individuals engaging in activities that require attention, skill, or coordination, such as driving or operating machinery.