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Making Public Policy. Models of Public Policy. Elite theory Group theory Institutionalism Rational choice theory Political systems theory Policy process model. Policy Process Model Policy Cycle. Problem definition/ Agenda setting. Policy change. Policy formulation. Policy evaluation.

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Making Public Policy


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Presentation Transcript
models of public policy
Models of Public Policy
  • Elite theory
  • Group theory
  • Institutionalism
  • Rational choice theory
  • Political systems theory
  • Policy process model
policy process model policy cycle
Policy Process ModelPolicy Cycle

Problem definition/

Agenda setting

Policy change

Policy formulation

Policy evaluation

Policy implementation

Policy legitimation

problem definition
Problem Definition
  • What is the problem?
  • Why is it a problem?
  • Who is involved?
  • What causes it?
  • Why does it persist?
agenda setting
Agenda Setting
  • Systemic vs. government agenda
    • Systemic: public is aware of and may be discussing
    • Institutional (i.e. governmental):considered to be those issues and problems that policymakers are addressing at a certain time
  • What issues would you consider to be on the government agenda currently?
streams of agenda setting
Streams of Agenda Setting

Problem stream

Agenda items

Policy stream

Political stream

explanations for agenda setting problems politics participants
Explanations for Agenda Setting:Problems, Politics, Participants
  • Problems
    • mandated items
    • magnitude of problem
    • focusing events (e.g., Sept. 11, Love Canal)
    • relationship to symbols
    • absence of private means
    • spillover impacts
    • analogy to other problems
explanations political
Explanations: Political
  • Political process change
    • change in administration, public opinion, etc.
  • Visible participants (entrepreneurs)
    • president and staff
    • congressional leadership
    • media
    • interest groups
explanations policy
Explanations: Policy
  • Potential solutions
  • “Criteria for survival”
policy formulation
Policy Formulation
  • Debate, discuss, etc. alternative policy choices
  • Policy analysis is important
  • Actors provide their preferred positions
  • Who’s involved
    • bureaucracy, EOP
    • legislature/staff
    • interest groups
policy legitimation
Policy Legitimation
  • Authorization or justification of policy
  • Important for mobilizing support
  • Gives legal force to decisions
  • Deals w/two major issues
    • Substance of the policy
    • Process of adopting the policy
policy implementation
Policy Implementation
  • Resources are allocated in order to execute policy
    • money spent
    • laws passed
    • regulations formulated
instruments of policy
Instruments of Policy
  • Regulation
  • Government management
  • Taxing and spending
  • Market mechanisms
  • Education and information
policy evaluation and change
Policy Evaluation and Change
  • A step which is often disregarded in the policy process
  • What were the policy’s goals ?
  • Were they were achieved?
  • What are the impacts ?
    • direct vs. indirect
    • short-term vs. long-term
  • Try to establish a feedback loop into the policy process
lowi policy typology
Lowi Policy Typology
  • Distributive policy
    • individualized grants and programs
  • Redistributive policy
    • one gains from another’s loss
  • Regulatory policy
    • government restriction of choice
    • protective policies