PPA 503 – The Public Policy-Making Process Lecture 6b – Policy Formulation and Emergency Management
Problem Definition and Agenda-Setting • Problem stream dominated by focusing events. • Policy stream: comprehensive emergency management versus homeland security focus. • Politics stream: window generated by focusing event. • Mitigation, preparedness, and response for Hurricane Katrina, August-September 2005. • A predictable surprise arises when leaders unquestionably had all the data and insight they needed to recognize the potential for, even the inevitability of, a crisis, but failed to respond with effective preventative action.
Problem Definition and Agenda-Setting • Knowing the problem existed. • U.S. GAO, 1976, 1982. • New Orleans Times Picayune June 23-27,2002. • Civil Engineering Magazine, 2003. • National Geographic October 2004. • FEMA, Allbaugh, three most likely disasters (New Orleans, California, New York), 2001. • FEMA, Hurricane Pam simulation, 2004. • Problem getting worse over time. • Numerous articles on the destruction of Louisiana wetlands.
Problem Definition and Agenda-Setting • High current costs, delayed benefits. • $2 billion to complete, $1 billion to upgrade to Category 4 or 5, 30 years. • Certain costs, uncertain larger rewards. • Emergency management traditionally suffers from discounting future events.
Problem Definition and Agenda-Setting • Maintain status quo. • Incremental changes in New Orleans levee system brought on by individual disasters. • Subversion by vocal minority. • Dominance of homeland security over emergency preparedness. • Corruption in Louisiana. • Mississippi casinos and anti-gambling lobbying.
Policy Formulation • Presidential and congressional commissions often drive the development of alternatives in emergency management and homeland security.
Policy Formulation • Homeland security. • Commissions. • Hart-Rudman Commission. • Gilmore Commission. • Think tanks. • RAND Corporation. • Brookings Institution. • Council on Foreign Relations. • ANSER Institute for Homeland Security. • Entrepreneurs. • Pre 9/11 – James Lee Witt, FEMA Director; Commissions; President Clinton. • Post 9/11 – President Bush, Vice President Cheney, Attorney General Ashcroft.
Policy Formulation • Emergency management—Post-Katrina. • Bush, George W. February 2006. The Federal Response to Hurricane Katrina: Lessons Learned. White House: Washington, DC. 24 February 2006 <www.whitehouse.gov/reports/katrina-lessons-learned/>. • Governor's Commission on Recovery, Rebuilding, and Renewal. 31 December 2005. After Katrina: Building Back Better Than Ever. Governor's Commission on Recovery, Rebuilding, and Renewal: Jackson, MS. 17 May 2007 <http://hsgac.senate.gov/_files/Katrina/BBBTE.pdf>.
Policy Formulation • Emergency management—Post-Katrina. • U.S. Government Accountability Office. 2006. Catastrophic disasters: Enhanced leadership, capabilities, and accountability controls will improve the effectiveness of the nation's preparedness, response, and recovery system (GAO-06-618). Washington, DC: USGAO. • U.S. House. Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina. February 15 2006. A Failure of Initiative: The Final Report of the Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina. Washington, DC: USGPO. 11 April 2006 <http://katrina.house.gov/full_katrina_report.htm>.
Policy Formulation • Emergency management—Post-Katrina. • U.S. Senate. Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. 2006. Hurricane Katrina: A Nation Still Unprepared (S. Rept. 109-322). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 22 June 2006 <hsgac.senate.gov/_files/Katrina/ExecSum.pdf>.
White House Recommendations • Hurricane Katrina Critical Challenges • 1. National Preparedness • 2. Integrated Use of Military Capabilities • 3. Communications • 4. Logistics and Evacuations • 5. Search and Rescue • 6. Public Safety and Security • 7. Public Health and Medical Support • 8. Human Services • 9. Mass Care and Housing
White House Recommendations • Hurricane Katrina Critical Challenges • 10. Public Communications • 11. Critical Infrastructure and Impact Assessment • 12. Environmental Hazards and Debris Removal • 13. Foreign Assistance • 14. Non-Governmental Aid • 15. Training, Exercises, and Lessons Learned • 16. Homeland Security Professional Development and Education • 17. Citizen and Community Preparedness
Governor’s Commission Recommendations • Infrastructure • Goals: • Embrace comprehensive planning principles that define how we want to grow. • Think regionally. • Issue Areas: • Land use. • Transportation. • Public services. • Housing.
Governor’s Commission Recommendations • Economic Development • Goals: • Develop tax incentives to encourage investment. • Develop business loan incentives. • Accelerate workforce training. • Provide affordable housing. • Issue Areas: • Tourism. • Small business. • Agriculture, forestry, and marine resources. • Defense and government contracting.
Governor’s Commission Recommendations • Human Services • Goals: • Replace crucial infrastructure. • Seek value in collaborations and connections. • Issue Areas: • Education. • Health and human services. • Non-governmental organizations.
Governor’s Commission Recommendations • Special Reports • Goals: • Connect the needs in each of the hurricane-affected communities with resources available from federal and state government agencies and from the nonprofit and private sectors. • Commit to rebuilding approaches that acknowledge the realities of living in a hurricane zone. • Issue Areas: • Finance • Policy Recommendation • Roadmap to Accountability
GAO Recommendations • Key issues: • 1. The actions of government agencies during Hurricane Katrina that made positive contributions to the response and recovery and those that were less positive; • 2. Catastrophic disaster leadership roles and responsibilities; • 3. Capabilities to prepare for, respond to, and recover from catastrophic disasters; • 4. Recognizing the tension between the need for timely action and the need for appropriate controls and accountability mechanisms; and • 5. Selected longer-term recovery issues, including the rebuilding effort along the Gulf Coast.
GAO Recommendations • Key capabilities: • Situational assessment and awareness; • Emergency communications; • Evacuations; • Search and rescue; • Logistics; and • Mass care and sheltering.
GAO Recommendations • Key recommendations: • Restructure leadership functions to fix coordination problems; • Develop detailed implementation plans for the National Response Plan (NRP) and its Catastrophic Incident Annex; • Provide guidance and direction for federal, state, and local planning, training, and exercises; • Monitor federal agencies’ efforts to meet their responsibilities under the NRP and the interim National Preparedness Goal; • Use risk management to assign finite resources for a catastrophic disaster; and • Provide guidance on advanced procurement practices and procedures for those federal agencies with roles and responsibilities under the NRP.
U.S. Senate Recommendations • Core Recommendation #1 – Create a new, comprehensive emergency-management organization within DHS to prepare for and respond to all disasters and catastrophes. • Core Recommendation #2 – From the federal level down, take a comprehensive all-hazards-plus approach to emergency management. • Core Recommendation #3 – Establish regional strike teams and enhance regional operations to provide better coordination between federal agencies and the states.
U.S. Senate Recommendations • Core Recommendation #4 – Build a true, government-wide operations center to provide enhanced situational awareness and manage interagency coordination in a disaster. • Core Recommendation #5 – Renew and sustain commitments at all levels of government to the nation’s emergency management system. • Core Recommendation #6 – Strengthen the plans and systems for the nation’s response to disasters and catastrophes. • Core Recommendation #7 – Improve the nation’s capacity to respond to catastrophic events.
Conclusion • Controversy boiled down to competing problem definitions: homeland security versus comprehensive emergency management. • 9/11 made homeland security ascendant. • Katrina reinvigorated comprehensive emergency management as a problem definition and policy formulation model.