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ZOONOTIC DISEASES. Tartu 10.3.-11.3.2004. DEFINITION. diseases from animals to humans or visa versa directly from animals by inhalation, contact or bites indirectly by contaminated soil or other material by vectors (insects). IMPORTANCE.

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zoonotic diseases

ZOONOTIC DISEASES

Tartu

10.3.-11.3.2004

Markku Seuri, FIOH, 2004

definition
DEFINITION
  • diseases from animals to humans or visa versa
  • directly from animals by inhalation, contact or bites
  • indirectly by contaminated soil or other material
  • by vectors (insects)

Markku Seuri, FIOH, 2004

importance
IMPORTANCE
  • in industrialised countries by food or drinks (water, milk etc)
  • as occupational diseases rare
    • in animal contact
    • in environments where animals are

Markku Seuri, FIOH, 2004

in eu
IN EU
  • Council Directive 92/117/EEC:
    • yearly report on the zoonoses situation in the country
  • the following is based on the Finnish zoonoses report in 1995 - 1999

Markku Seuri, FIOH, 2004

mycobacterium bovis bovine tbc
MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS (BOVINE TBC)
  • TBC free status of bovine herds
    • eradicated in 1960´s for the most part
    • latest detection 1982
  • no TBC isolated from deer, swine or zoo animals in 2002
  • in man M. bovis found 0-1 times a year

Markku Seuri, FIOH, 2004

brucellosis
BRUCELLOSIS
  • brucellosis free status of bovine herds
  • latest case in cattle in 1960
  • brucellosis free status of ovine (sheep) and caprine (coat) herds
    • never recorded in Finland
  • porcine brucellosis has been recorded in Finland
  • 0-2 human cases a year; mostly from food eaten abroad

Markku Seuri, FIOH, 2004

salmonella
SALMONELLA
  • in 2002 found in two broiler breeding flocks and in one turkey breeding flock
  • no cases in egg production
  • in 9 herds of cattle
  • none in swine
  • in man 500 - 1 300 domestic cases yearly; 2500 - 3500 abroad
  • no occupational cases known

Markku Seuri, FIOH, 2004

trichinella
TRICHINELLA
  • trichinellosis has been detected in a few domestic swine every year during the last 20 years
  • in 2002 two cases in over 2 million samples
  • none found in horses
  • two in farmed wild boars
  • in wild animals 55 positive of 296 samples
  • no human cases in 2002

Markku Seuri, FIOH, 2004

rabies
RABIES
  • since 1991 Finland is free of rabies
  • no positive cases in 2002
  • vaccination programme:
    • to immunise wild animals coming from Russia
    • 80 000 immunisation baits spread by plane in south-eastern border area of 250 km long and 20-30 km wide
  • no human cases

Markku Seuri, FIOH, 2004

listerosis
LISTEROSIS
  • listed as a zoonotic disease even if it is mostly a microbe of the soil
  • for animals Listeria rarely causes diseases
  • importance in food-chain:
    • it can grow in temperatures found in refrigerators
  • commonly found in soil and animal faeces
  • commonly by food, very rarely by direct contact to sick animal

Markku Seuri, FIOH, 2004

yersinosis
YERSINOSIS
  • the third most common cause of bacterial gastrointestinal infections (after Campylobacter and Salmonella)
  • 2002 695 cases reported
  • by food or drinks
  • according to the serologic studies occupational exposure is evident, but clinical disease?
  • Occupational nature no shown

Markku Seuri, FIOH, 2004

echinococcus granulosus
ECHINOCOCCUS GRANULOSUS
  • found in reindeer close to the Russian border and from imported horses
  • in 2002 in 21 reindeer out of 65 358 samples tested
  • none found in cattle, sheep, goats, dogs, pigs, horses or moose in 2002
  • no human cases in 2002

Markku Seuri, FIOH, 2004

toxoplasmosis
TOXOPLASMOSIS
  • found in cats, wild animals etc
  • causes abortions and malformations in humans
  • 34 human cases reported in 2002
  • it has been estimated that each year about 50 children are borne with toxoplasmosis
  • no reported cases as an occupational disease in Finland

Markku Seuri, FIOH, 2004

ehec 1
EHEC 1
  • definition disputable
  • verocytotoxic E. coli (serotype O157)
  • new
  • cattle is the main reservoir
  • animals are not effected
  • in 1997 1,3 % of all herds were positive

Markku Seuri, FIOH, 2004

ehec 2
EHEC 2
  • EHEC dies in heating but can survive freezing and stands well acid environment (German type sausages)
  • in humans the toxins (Stx1 and Stx2) causes the symptoms
  • hemorrhagic diarrhoea
  • mortality 5 % in children under 5 y

Markku Seuri, FIOH, 2004

ehec 3
EHEC 3
  • in the beginning 1990 only a few sporadic cases from abroad
  • in 1996-1997 the disease spread to Finland
  • in 2002 at slaughter 9 positive samples out of 195
  • 17 human cases

Markku Seuri, FIOH, 2004

ehec 4
EHEC 4
  • not known occupational diseases
  • but cases of children living in farms have been reported
  • children living in farms are in risk

Markku Seuri, FIOH, 2004

erysipelothrix
ERYSIPELOTHRIX
  • common microbe in soil
  • causes typical disease in swine
  • about 5000 cases in swine yearly
  • in abattoirs and in farms can be an occupational diseases:
    • causes skin infection in damaged skin
  • septic form rare

Markku Seuri, FIOH, 2004

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