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Digestive Issues:. Diseases, Disorders, and Dysfunctions. Choking. the mechanical obstruction of the flow of air from the environment into the lungs can be partial (allowing inadequate flow of air into the lungs) or complete

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digestive issues

Digestive Issues:

Diseases, Disorders, and Dysfunctions

  • the mechanical obstruction of the flow of air from the environment into the lungs
  • can be partial (allowing inadequate flow of air into the lungs) or complete
  • prolonged or complete choking results in asphyxia and is potentially fatal
  • oxygen stores in the blood and lungs keep the victim alive for several minutes after breathing is stopped completely
gastroesophageal reflux disease
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease


Closed LES (loweresophageal sphincter)

Open LES

  • gastroesophageal reflux disease(GERD) is also called gastric reflux disease or acid reflux disease
  • chronic symptoms of mucosal damage caused by stomach acid coming up from the stomach into the esophagus
  • a typical symptom is heartburn
gerd treatments
GERD Treatments
  • eating smaller meals earlier in the evening
  • avoiding things that affect the LES (caffeine, smoking, chocolate, fatty foods, spicy foods, peppermint, alcohol)
  • taking antacids
  • prescription pharmaceuticals to reduce acid production or increase motility
  • surgery to rebuild the lower esophageal sphincter
  • endoscopic treatments to tighten the LES (by suturing or applying radio-frequency waves to create scar tissue)

An ulcer is a small erosion (hole) in the gastrointestinal tract. The most common type, duodenal, occurs in the first 12 inches of small intestine beyond the stomach.


Ulcers that form in the stomach are called gastric ulcers.



gastric ulcer
Gastric Ulcer
  • mainly caused by the bacterium, Helicobacter pylori
  • also caused by prolonged use of anti-inflammatory drugs, such as Ibuprofen and aspirin, which damage the stomach lining
  • severe complications include bleeding or perforations (can cause death)!

Small calculi (stones)

Big calculi


cholecystitis (inflammation)

  • an accumulation of hardened cholesterol and/or calcium deposits in the gallbladder
  • can be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball
  • can either be “passed” (OUCH!!) or surgically removed
  • a gastrointestinal disturbance characterized by decreased water absorption and increased peristaltic activity of the large intestine
  • this results in increased, multiple, watery feces
  • this condition may result in severe dehydration, especially in infants
  • a condition in which the large intestine is emptied infrequently and/or with difficulty
  • too much water is reabsorbed in the colon
  • the solid waste hardens and is difficult to pass
  • greater fluid intake, more fibre, and increased exercise are recommended

The most common symptom of internal hemorrhoids is bright red blood on stool, on toilet paper, or in the toilet bowl after a bowel movement.

Hemorrhoids are swollen and inflamed veins around the anus or in the lower rectum.

About 75 percent of people will have hemorrhoids at some point in their lives. Hemorrhoids are most common among adults ages 45 to 65 and in pregnant women.



inflammatory bowel disease ibd
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

Healthy colon


inflammatory bowel disease
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
  • Crohn’s is one of a group of disorders categorized as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which also includes ulcerative colitis
  • intestines become inflamed (red and swollen) and develop sores
  • causes pain, cramps, intestinal bleeding, weight loss, diarrhea
  • diagnosed based on symptoms and results of a sigmoidoscopy or a colonoscopy, as well as x-rays
ibd treatment
IBD Treatment
  • goal of treatment is to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system response
  • if ulcerative colitis becomes so severe that it can't be helped by medicines, it may be necessary to surgically remove part or all of the colon (resulting in a colostomy or ileostomy)
intestinal polyps
Intestinal Polyps

Polyps are abnormal growths arising from the inside lining of the colon or rectum. 

Peduncular polyp

Sessile polyp

They protrude into the intestinal canal. Some are flat (sessile) while others are on a stalk (peduncular).

intestinal polyps1
Intestinal Polyps
  • Polyps are very common, occurring in 15-20% of the adult population 
  • Although most polyps are benign (not cancerous) some can change into cancer
  • Colonoscopy is used to identify and remove polyps
  • Regular screening begins at age 50
colon cancer
Colon Cancer

Stage I

Stage II

Stage III

  • an inflammation of the appendix due to infection
  • common treatments involve antibiotics and removal of the appendix (appendectomy)
  • if untreated, appendix can burst causing infection and death
  • the surgical (open) or laparoscopic (minimally invasive) removal of the appendix
  • laparoscopy involves tiny incisions where a camera and surgical instruments are inserted

Marilyn’s appendectomy scar, 1952

clostridium difficile infection
Clostridium difficileInfection
  • anaerobic, endospore-forming bacteria found in hospitals and other long-term care facilities
  • causes severe diarrhea and other intestinal diseases when competing bacteria in the gut flora have been wiped out by antibiotics
  • can be life-threatening, especially among the elderly
  • Bleach wipes, hand-washing with soap and water, and gloves are effective at reducing infection
  • Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are noteffective at killing the spores
the end

The End!

HW: Eat well, exercise, and rest…then study for the quiz!