Thesis The negative affects of alcohol and drinking are breast cancer, colorectal cancer, cirrhosis.
Alcohol is an organic solvent, which in high doses has both direct and indirect harmful influence on a large number of organs, and a high alcohol intake during a longer period of time implies an increased risk for developing alcohol dependency syndrome.
With an increasing alcohol intake, there is a strongly increased risk of alcoholic cirrhosis. The high level of acetaldehyde has been suggested a part of the aetiology.
The types of cancer related to a high alcohol intake are those in direct contact with the alcohol; those of the oropharynx and oesophagus and those related to cirrhosis; liver cancer.
There is a strong dose-dependent increase in risk upper digestive tract with increasing alcohol intake.
It has been discussed whether a causal inference between alcohol and coronary heart disease can be drawn from studies using non drinkers of alcohol as the reference category as this group could consist of ‘sick-quitters’ participants who have been drinking excessively in former times, but stopped as a consequence of ill health.
Entire vocabularies have been developed to describe participation in these drinking games, which suggests that drinking games have become a social institution in the college student lifestyle.
Drinking games reportedly facilitate relaxation and disinhibition, enhance enjoyment of celebratory events, allow college students the opportunity to fit in with peer-aged individuals, and facilitate sexual contact.3
College students who participate in drinking games tend to achieve higher blood alcohol concentrations and are at a higher risk of experiencing negative alcohol-related consequences.
Early studies on drinking games indicated that women may adopt a bystander perspective rather than participate in drinking games, with several studies reporting that female college students do not participate in drinking games as often as their male counterparts.
At least one study found that female students reported more alcohol-related negative consequences associated with their participation in drinking games than male students.
This finding may be due in part to the increased sexual risks for female drinking game participants or a tendency for male players to structure the game so that female players become intoxicated quickly.
Participation in drinking games has been identified in previous research as a high-risk event that is associated with elevated levels of alcohol use and use-related negative consequences.
Students who attended NASD and reported recent drinking game participation were also more likely to experience specific alcohol-related problems, including difficulties managing responsibilities, interpersonal difficulties, blackouts, and symptoms of alcohol dependence (e.g., tolerance, withdrawal, attempts to control drinking).
Although the effects of alcohol consumption in adults are widely known, knowledge about drinking habits and drinking consequences in children is limited and less systematic.
This variability makes it difficult to quantify the effects of alcohol use and, in particular, to compare the results of studies by means of meta-analytic techniques, which have rarely been employed in this field.
The connection between alcohol and developmental defects had become clear in 1957, when a French medical student, Jacqueline Rouquette, studied a sample of 100 children with developmental abnormalities who had been born to alcoholic parents, concluding that drinking during pregnancy constitutes a relevant risk to the child.
Clinical and animal studies have demonstrated that many risk factors influence the extent of brain damage and the corresponding cognitive and behavioral deficits.
Animal studies have shown that binge-like drinking patterns, in which the fetus is exposed to high blood alcohol concentrations over relatively short periods of time, are in fact particularly harmful, even if the overall amount of alcohol consumed is less than that consumed with more continuous drinking patterns.
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