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Research Process and Methods

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  1. Research Process and Methods Prof.Dr. Srisakdi Charmonman Board Chairman and CEO College of Internet Distance Education Assumption University charm@ksc.au.edu www.charm.au.edu Keynote Address, Academic Research Seminar Ph.D. in eLearning Methodology, Collage of Internet Distance Education, Assumption University, July 26, 2008

  2. Research Process and Methods • Introduction • Definition of Research • Research Process • Research Methods • Research Publishing • Other Types of Researches • Concluding Remarks 2

  3. Introduction • As of July 2008,the program of Ph.D. in eLearning Methodologyat Assumption Universityis the first and the only such programin the world. 3

  4. 4

  5. Introduction (Cont.) • CIDE Ph.D. in eLearning Methodology established with emphasis on research. • The Ph.D. Research must be original and significant. • It is not acceptable to be- original but not significant- not original but significant 5

  6. Introduction (Cont.) • At least one research paper must be published in a refereed publication of - ACM (Association for Computing Machinery)- IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers)- Other learned societies at the same level as ACM and IEEE 6

  7. Introduction (Cont.) • As of July 2008, the field of eLearning is still rather virgin in the sense thatnot many Ph.D.-level researcheshave been carried out. 7

  8. Introduction (Cont.) • A Ph.D. candidate in eLearning Methodology may do research in- Hardware for eLearning- Software for eLearning- Network for eLearning- Security for eLearning 8

  9. Introduction (Cont.) - Management of eLearning - Human Resource in eLearning - Marketing of eLearning - Finance of eLearning 9

  10. Introduction (Cont.) - Best Practices in eLearning  - eLearning Degree Programs  - Corporate eLearning  - Support of eLearning - eLearning Technology  10

  11. Introduction (Cont.) - Course Delivery   - Interactive Group Learning  - Collaborative Learning  - Accessible eLearning - Courseware Design and Production  11

  12. Introduction (Cont.) - Conformance and Standards - Usability and Evaluation Framework  - Multilingual Contents  - Shared Resources - Learning Management Systems  12

  13. Introduction (Cont.) - Knowledge On-Demand  - Quality Assurance  - Interoperability eLearning - Principles and Practices  - Theories of Learning and eLearning  13

  14. Introduction (Cont.) - Psychological Theories of eLearning  - Experiences and Lessons Learned  - eLearning Design Approaches - Any other related topics 14

  15. 2. Definition of Research From “en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Research”, • Research is human activity based on intellectual applicationsin the investigation of matter. • Research may be classified as:- Basic Research- Applied Research 15

  16. 2.1 Basic Research • Basic Research also be called - Fundamental Research- Pure Research • Basic Research is research in which the primary objectives are:- The advancement of knowledge- The theoretical understanding of the relation among variables 16

  17. Definition of Research (Cont.) • Basic Research is:- Exploratory- Driven by researcher’s: * Curiosity* Interest * Intuition • Basic Research is conducted without any practical end in mind. 17

  18. Definition of Research (Cont.) • Basic Research may have unexpected practical applications. • Basic Research may become the foundation for Applied Research. 18

  19. 2.2 Applied Research • Applied Research has the primary aim of:- Discovering- Interpreting- Developmentof methods and systemsfor advancement of human knowledgeon wide variety of scientific mattersof the world and the universe. 19

  20. 3. Research Process 3.1 Scientific Research Process 3.2 Historical Research Process 20

  21. 3.1 Scientific Research Process • Scientific Research process may vary depending on:- The subject matter- The researcher 21

  22. Scientific Research Process (Cont.) Most formal research, either basic or applied, may follow the steps below: • Formation of the topic • Hypothesis • Conceptual definitions • Operational definitions 22

  23. Scientific Research Process (Cont.) 5) Gathering of data 6) Analysis of data 7) Test, revising of hypothesis (if necessary) 8) Conclusion or repeat all the steps if necessary 23

  24. Scientific Research Process (Cont.) • It should be noted that: - A hypothesis is established to make prediction - A hypothesis is tested by observing the outcome of experiment or survey 24

  25. Scientific Research Process (Cont.) - If the outcome is not consistent with the hypothesis, the hypothesis is rejected.- If the outcome is consistent with the hypothesis, the hypothesis is accepted (the hypothesis is not proven but is supported by the experiment or survey). 25

  26. 3.2 Historical Research Process • The historical method is the techniquesand guidelines for historiansto use historical sources and other evidencesto research and then to write history. • For Ph.D. in eLearning Methodology,a historical research is usually not acceptable. 26

  27. Historical Research Process (Cont.) Most historical research processmay follow the steps below: • Identification of origin date • Evidence of localization • Recognition of authorship • Analysis of data • Identification of integrity • Attribution of credibility 27

  28. 4. Research Methods From “en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Research”, • The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge, which takes three main forms:1) Exploratory research:which structures and identifies new problems2) Constructive research:which develops solutions to a problem 3) Empirical research:which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence 28

  29. Research Methods (Cont.) • Research can also fall into two distinct types: - Primary research - Secondary research 29

  30. Research Methods (Cont.) • Primary research is also called field researchinvolves the collection of datathat does not already exist. • There are numerous forms including:- questionnaires - telephone interviews • Primary researchis widely used in market researchand competitive intelligence. 30

  31. Research Methods (Cont.) • It may be very expensive because many people need to be confronted. • By the time the research is complete it may be out of date. • People may have to be employedor avoid their primary dutiesfor the duration of the research. • People may not reply if emails or letters are used. 31

  32. Research Methods (Cont.) • Secondary researchis also known asdesk research. • It involves the summary, collationand/or synthesis of existing researchrather than primary research,where data is collected from, for example, research subjects or experiments. 32

  33. Research Methods (Cont.) • Secondary researchis widely used in:- market research - medical research • The principle methodologyin medical secondary research is the systematic review. 33

  34. Research Methods (Cont.) • Systematic reviewis commonly using meta-analytic statistical techniques, although other methods of synthesis, like realist reviews and meta-narrative reviews, have been developed in recent years. 34

  35. Research Methods (Cont.) • Research methods used by scholars include: 1) Action research 2) Cartography 3) Case study 4) Classification 5) Citation Analysis 35

  36. Research methods (Cont.) 6) Consumer ethnocentrism 7) Content or Textual Analysis 8) Delphi method 9) Ethnography 10) Experience and intuition 11) Experiments 12) Interviews 36

  37. Research methods (Cont.) 13) Mathematical models 14) Participant observation 15) Q methodology 16) Questionnaires 17) Simulation 18) Statistical analysis 19) Statistical surveys 37

  38. Research methods (Cont.) • Action research is a reflective processof progressive problem solving led by individuals to improve the way they address issues and solve problems. 38

  39. Research methods (Cont.) • Cartography or mapmaking is the study and practice of making representations of the Earth on a flat surface. 39

  40. Research methods (Cont.) • In Case Study, rather than using large samples and following a rigid protocol to examine a limited number of variables, the method involves an in-depth, longitudinal examination of a single instance or event a case. 40

  41. Research methods (Cont.) • Classification or Categorizationis the process in which ideas and objects arerecognized,differentiatedandunderstood. • Categorization implies that objectsare grouped into categories, usually for some specific purpose. 41

  42. Research methods (Cont.) • Ideally, a category illuminates a relationship between thesubjectsandobjects of knowledge • Categorization is fundamental in: - language - prediction - inference- decision making - all kinds of environmental interaction 42

  43. Research methods (Cont.) • Citation analysisis the examination of the frequency and pattern of citations in articles and books. • Citation is used in scholarly works to establish links to other works or other researchers. It is the most common method of bibliometrics 43

  44. Research methods (Cont.) • Consumer ethnocentrismis derived from the more general psychological concept of ethnocentrism. • Basically, ethnocentric individuals tend to view their group as superior to others. As such, they view other groups from the perspective of their own, and reject those which are different while accepting those which are similar. 44

  45. Research methods (Cont.) • Content analysisis sometimes called textual analysis. • Content analysis is a standard methodology in the social sciences for studying the content of communication. 45

  46. Research methods (Cont.) • Earl Babbie defined as “the study of recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings and laws." • It is also a scholarly methodology in the humanities by which texts are studied as to authorship, authenticity, or meaning. This latter subject include philology, hermeneutics, and semiotics. 46

  47. Research methods (Cont.) • Delphi is based on the principle that forecasts from a structured group of experts are more accurate than those from unstructured groups or individuals. 47

  48. Research methods (Cont.) • The technique can be adapted for use in face-to-face meetings, and is then called mini-Delphi or Estimate-Talk-Estimate (ETE). • Delphi has been widely used for business forecasting and has certain advantages over another structured forecasting approach, and prediction markets. 48

  49. Research methods (Cont.) • Ethnography presents the results of a holistic research method founded on the idea that a system’s properties cannot necessarily be accurately understood independently of each other. 49

  50. Research methods (Cont.) • The genre has both formal and historical connections to travel writing and colonial office reports. • Several academic traditions, in particular the constructivist and relativist paradigms, employ ethnographic research as a crucial research method. • Many cultural anthropologists consider ethnography the essence of the discipline 50