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NUREMBERG CODE. Presented by: Jocelyn D’souza Ketki Kamble Krutika Makhare Linda Mascarenhas Vindhya Shetty. What is Nuremberg Code?.

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  1. NUREMBERG CODE Presented by: Jocelyn D’souza KetkiKamble KrutikaMakhare Linda Mascarenhas Vindhya Shetty

  2. What is Nuremberg Code? The Nuremberg Code is a set of research ethics principles for human experimentation set as a result of the Subsequent Nuremberg Trials at the end of the Second World War.

  3. > The Holocaust was the systematic, annihilation of six million Jews by the Nazi regime during World War 2. • > "Holocaust" is a word of Greek origin meaning "sacrifice by fire. > The Nazis, believed that Germans were "racially superior" and that the Jews were "inferior." > By 1945, the Germans and their collaborators killed nearly two out of every three European Jews as part of the "Final Solution," the Nazi policy to murder the Jews of Europe.

  4. History • No ethical guidelines for research existedin the major Allied countries before Nuremberg Code. • Nazi doctors performed experiments on concentration camp prisoners. • Exploited by forcing to participate in research without consent. • Subjects experienced extreme pain or torture, and in most of them they suffered permanent injury, mutilation, or death.

  5. Experiments of Nazi Doctors • Military Experiments - High Altitude - Freezing Temperature - Sea Water - Sulfanilamide • Injuries and Illnesses - Malaria - Tuberculosis - Bone Grafting - Phosgene - Bone,muscle,joint transplantation - Sterilization - Artificial insemination • Racial Diagnosis - Jewish Collection • Twin Studies

  6. These experimentations and research were crimes committed in the guise of scientific research. • Experiments caused unnecessary suffering and injury. • Camps were liberated gradually when the main victorious Allied forces of World War II advanced on the German army. • The plan for the "Trial of European War Criminals" was drafted by Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson and the War Department as a method of dealing with the Nazi leadership. • On January 14, 1942, representatives from the nine occupied countries met in London to draft the Inter-Allied Resolution on German War Crimes , agreed on the format of punishment for those responsible for war crimes during World War II

  7. Nuremberg Trial

  8. Nuremberg trial was held in 1945-1946, by IMT in which Allies prosecuted German military leaders, political officials, industrialists and financiers for crimes committed during World War II. The trials were held in the city of Nuremberg, Bavaria, Germany at the PALACE OF JUSTICE. Two trials were conducted: (a) TRIALS OF THE MAJOR WAR CRIMINALS. (b) TRIALS OF LESSER WAR CRIMINALS. (i) The Doctors Trial (ii) The Judges Trial

  9. Justice Robert Jackson, Chief Prosecutor for the United States at the Nuremberg Trials. • Great Britain's JudgesJudge was Geoffrey Lawrence. • Alternate judge was Norman Birkett. • The American Judges • Judge was Francis Biddle. • Alternate was John Parker. • The French Judges Judge was Henri Donnedieu de Vabres. • French alternate Robert Falco. • Judges from the Soviet Union Judge was Ion Nikitchenko. • His alternate was Alexander Volchkov

  10. 24 defendants were executed as a result of the Nuremberg trials, 128 were sent to prison, and 35 were acquitted. • Twenty-one of the 24 were convicted; of these, 12 were sentenced to hang and the remainder were sent to prison.

  11. The Nuremberg trials had a great influence on the development of international criminal law. • The Conclusions of the Nuremberg trials served as models for: >The Genocide Convention, 1948. • >The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948. • >The Nuremberg Principles, 1950. • >The Convention on the Abolition of the Statute of Limitations on War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity, 1968. • >The Geneva Convention on the Laws and Customs of War, 1949; its supplementary protocols, 1977.

  12. Nuremberg Code 1. Voluntary informed consent 2. Fruitful result for the good of the society 3. Prior experimentation on animals and prior knowledge of the problems 4. Avoidance of unnecessary physical or mental injury 5. Banning of known lethal or disable procedures 6. Degree of risks should exceed benifits 7. Proper preparation and proper facilities to prevent injury or death 8. Performance of experiments only by scientifically qualified persons 9. Participants may freely end the experimentation. 10. The experiments must stop if it proves too dangerous

  13. Although it did not carry the force of law, the Nuremberg Code was the first international document which advocated voluntary participation and informed consent • The first and the longest principle is “The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential.” • Informedconsent, with specific reliance on the Nuremberg Code, is the basis of the International Ethical Guidelines for BiomedicalResearch Involving Human Subjects, the most recent guidelinespromulgated by the WHO and the Councilfor International Organizations of Medical Sciences.

  14. Informed Consent First provision of Nuremberg Code: • “voluntary consent of human subject is absolutely essential” • Subjects are made fully aware of nature and purpose of research • Persons involved have the legal capacity to give consent and Consent is voluntarily given.

  15. Informed Consent • Description of any risks or discomforts and benefits to subject. • Disclosure of appropriate alternative treatments if any exist. • Describe protection of confidentiality of personal records. • If there is risk, describe precautions and treatments available.

  16. Criticism # The regulations were ambiguous, vague and in many instances, impossible to fulfill. # Disliked the very idea of a single, concrete set of standards to guide behavior in such a complex matter as human experimentation # Conceived in reference to Nazi atrocities and not considered adequate for the conduct of medical research in other parts of the world. # Consent clause was too extreme and not feasible with the realities of clinical research.

  17. In view of the apparent ineffectiveness of the Nuremberg Code and the narrowness of its scope, the World Medical Association drafted the Declaration of Helsinki (1964), which was designed for professional use and distinguished between therapeutic and non-therapeutic research.

  18. Conclusion • The Nuremberg Code has served as a foundation for ethical clinical research. • Focused attention on the fundamental rights of research participants and on the responsibilities of investigators. • It has resulted in the development of other initiatives- e.g. the Declaration of Helsinki and the Belmont Report—designed to ensure the rights and safety of human beings taking part in medical research • It has served as an authoritative reference point for general debate and for critics of human experimentation.

  19. References • www.cirp.org/library/ethics/nuremberg/ • ohsr.od.nih.gov/guidelines/nuremberg.html • www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/.../ftrials/nuremberg/nuremberg.htm • history1900s.about.com/cs/nurembergtrial/ • www.cirp.org/library/ethics/nuremberg/

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