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Where Do Values Originate? How Do They Develop?. Originate Not born with values. They are learned through socialization. Socializers include: Family, Peers, School, Religion, Government, & Media Develop Values Programming Analysis Early Years (imprinting) Middle Years (modeling)

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where do values originate how do they develop
Where Do Values Originate?How Do They Develop?
  • Originate
    • Not born with values. They are learned through socialization.
    • Socializers include:
      • Family, Peers, School, Religion, Government, & Media
  • Develop
    • Values Programming Analysis
      • Early Years (imprinting)
      • Middle Years (modeling)
      • Teen Years (socialization & peer group)
      • Societal Influences (decade theory) (not on test)
altering influences of our values
Altering Influences of Our Values
  • Major Life Change
  • Mental Unrest
  • Changes in Wants
  • Evaluating Your Values
  • Characteristics of Healthy Values
    • Owned
    • Realistic
    • Behaviors that promote positive outcomes
    • Life Enhancing
how are values transmitted
How are Values Transmitted
  • Moralizing
    • Direct, although sometimes subtle transmission of the adult’s values to young people
  • Laissez-faire
    • Opposite means of value transmission than moralizing. In laissez-faire the young person is left to discover values without leadership or guidance.
recommendations for values development
Recommendations for Values Development
  • Set a Positive Example
    • Do as I say not as I do yields a child who will do just that, say one thing but do another.
  • Encourage the Values You Think are Important
    • Positive Reinforcement
  • Teach and Guide
    • Allow Experience to Be a Teacher
    • Encourage Thinking for Oneself
  • Instill a Value of Self
  • Emphasize Universally Acceptable Values
characteristics of overall health
Characteristics of Overall Health
  • Trim and Physically Fit
  • Full of Energy
  • Free of Minor Complaints (indigestion, headaches, constipation, insomnia, et.)
  • Alert and Able to Concentrate
  • Radiant with Clear Skin
  • Active and Creative
  • Able to Relax Easily, Free of Worry, and Anxiety
  • Free of Destructive Health Habits
  • Fulfilled and At Peace
  • Satisfied with Your Sexual Relationships
  • Able to Assert Yourself and Stand Up for Your Rights
  • Think Critically About a Variety of Topics
just checking in with self
Just Checking in With Self
  • Based on Assignment 1a, you should have a better idea of your self-concept and the manner in which other’s see you. With this feedback you have some decisions to make.
  • Do you believe what they have told you?
  • Do you want to change anything about you?
  • What are they?
defensiveness the enemy
True or Real Self vs Ideal Self

What do we do when the “Real Self” and the “Ideal Self” are not the same

Cognitive Dissonance:

A state of tension that occurs when a person simultaneously holds two cognitions that are psychologically inconsistent, or when a person’s belief is inconsistent with his or her behavior.

Defensiveness: The Enemy
steps for achieving goals
Steps for Achieving Goals
  • Consider and Assess Goals for Change
    • Isthe goal mine?
    • Is the goal in accord with my values?
    • Is the goal a priority of mine?
    • Is the goal realistic?
    • Is the goal specific?
    • What are my motives?
  • Write the Goal
  • Determine Specific Action Steps
    • Pinpoint
  • Take Action
    • The longer you wait the less likely you will act.
  • Reassess the Goal and Repeat Steps
physical health
Physical Health
  • Benefits of Physical Activity
  • Nutrition
  • Weight Maintenance
    • Diet, Cardio, Weight Training
  • Adequate Rest
  • Stress Management (see next slide)
mental health stress management
Mental Health: Stress Management
  • Stress- the bodies experience of a perceived demand to adjust.
  • General Adaptation Syndrome (Hans Selye)
stress management cont
Stress Management (cont)
  • Distress v. Eustress (both are taxing)
  • Sources of Stress
    • External and Internal
  • Coping with Stress
    • Deep Relaxation and Breathing
    • Cognitive Change (see
mental health valuing yourself
Mental Health: Valuing Yourself
  • Self-Esteem- the value that we place on ourselves.
    • Global- overall self-evaluation
  • Sources of Self-Esteem
      • Social Interaction (reflections & perception)
      • Social Information (feedback from others)
      • Social Comparison (family, peers & culture)
      • Self-Observation
    • How much should we rely on others? Self?
mental health valuing yourself13
Mental Health: Valuing Yourself
  • Effects of Higher Levels of Self-Esteem
      • Improved Academic Performance
      • Emotions and Behavior (depression & drug use)
      • Improved Relationships (Closeness)
      • Improved Career Success
    • The effects of low self-esteem are the converse of the list above.
mental health valuing yourself14
Mental Health: Valuing Yourself
  • Self-Esteem Building and Strengthening
    • Heal Psychological Pain
    • Choose Healthy Conscious Living
    • Set Priorities
    • Concentrate on Strengths
      • Affirmations (positive statements about self)
    • Evaluate Sources
    • Change Thoughts
theory of change i thought changing
Theory of Change I: Thought Changing
  • Change Negative Thought Patterns
    • Cognitive Theory
      • Event-Thought-Emotion-Action (cycle)
        • Punctuate Thought
        • Thoughts become automatic
        • Negative thoughts begat negative emotions
    • Change Your Thoughts
      • Cognitive Restructuring- thought changing
      • Tune into Self Talk or Metacognition- your thoughts
      • Irrational Beliefs- unreasonable and exaggerated thoughts
thought changing
Thought Changing
  • Change Negative Thought Patterns (cont)
    • Albert Ellis
      • Identify irrational thought
      • Determine the truth of the thought and related facts
      • Restructure thought Just because ____ doesn’t mean
      • End with an affirmation
    • Thought Stopping- A cognitive technique in which you mentally say “stop thinking this way” or just “stop”
theory of change ii
Theory of Change II.
  • Behaviorism (B.F. Skinner): An approach to psychology that emphasizes the study of observable behavior and the role of the environment as a determinant of behavior.
    • Operant Conditioning: The process by which a response becomes more likely to occur or less so, depending on its consequences.
    • Reinforcer: A stimulus or event that strengthens or increases the probability of the response it follows.
    • Punisher: A stimulus or event that weakens or decreases the probability of the response it follows.
  • If you persist in an unhealthy behavior your self-esteem will not increase. Make wise decisions.