Potatoes and grains
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Potatoes and Grains. Potatoes. Native to North and South America Select potatoes that are… Firm Smooth Avoid… Green areas Mold Dark Spots Large cuts. Potatoes. Storage Cool in dry places 30 days for Russet or all-purpose No longer than 1 week for New Potatoes Ventilated containers

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Potatoes l.jpg

  • Native to North and South America

    Select potatoes that are…

    • Firm

    • Smooth


    • Green areas

    • Mold

    • Dark Spots

    • Large cuts

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  • Cool in dry places

  • 30 days for Russet or all-purpose

  • No longer than 1 week for New Potatoes

  • Ventilated containers

    Solanine is…

  • Natural toxin, harmful bitter tasting substance

  • Developed by exposure to light

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Safety tips – preparing potatoes

  • Wash potatoes thoroughly

  • Cut away sprouts and green spots

  • If in doubt about freshness or safety, discard potatoes

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  • Grasses that grow edible seeds

  • Whole grains are grains that have not been milled.

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a. Hull 1. Great source of fiber, surrounding endosperm

b. Brain 2. Germ, Bran, & Hull removed or polished

c. Endosperm 3. Smallest part, trace fat rich in Thiamin

d. Germ 4. Protective Coating

e. Milling Process 5. Largest part, major source of protein & carbohydrates

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  • Grains that are ground and broken down are called stone ground.

  • The germ, bran and hull are left intact on the stone grains.

  • Wheat is classified as hard and soft depending on the protein content.

  • Durum and Semolina are hard wheat's used for making pasta

    Tips – selecting and storing grains

    • Bags, boxes and all containers should be intact and clean.

    • Store dry grains above floor level on shelves in dry ventilated area.

    • Whole grains stored in freezer.

    • Brown rice stored in refrigerator.

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  • Legumes are seeds from pod-producing plants.

    Examples of Legumes

    • Yellow split peas

    • Great Northern beans

    • Kidney beans

    • Pinto beans

    • Lintels

    • Navy beans

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  • Legumes are known as the meat alternatives because of their high protein content.

    Tips – Storing Legumes

    • Cool, dry, well ventilated area away from light and heat.

    • Discard any moldy, damp or wrinkled legumes

    • Keeps for 1-2 years. Best if used in 6 months.

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  • One of the most versatile and convenient foods to prepare.

  • Dried pasta and noodles are considered an essential food because they store well, cook quickly, used as base or accompaniment for popular dishes

    Tips – Storing Pasta

    • Dry, well ventilated area

    • Above floor level on shelving

    • Be sure dates can be easily seen on packaging

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Potato Types

  • Most popular vegetable because it is inexpensive and versatile.

  • Varieties differ in starch and moisture content, shape, and skin color

  • Those suitable for baking, pureeing and frying (sweet potatoes, yams, and russet) are high in starch and low in moisture

  • Sweet potatoes and yams can be used interchangeably

  • Sweet Potatoes- thick skin ranges in color from light tan to brownish red, orange mealy flesh that is high in sugar

  • Yams- similar to sweet potatoes but range in color from creamy white to deep red, less sweet than sweet potatoes

  • Tubers are fat underground stems capable of growing a new plant

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Potato Differences

  • Russet/Idaho – Standard white baking potato. Skin is brownish red, flesh in mealy white, any sized, excellent for baking and frying

  • Chefs/All-purpose – Drier, less starchy, less expensive, irregularly shaped, most suited to preparation in which final stage not visually important

  • New – Small, immature red potatoes, less than 2 in. in diameter, high in moisture and sugar low in starch, use where potato must keep shape

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Cooking Potatoes

  • Single stage technique – Directly from raw state to finished state by using one cooking method

    • Boiled and baked potatoes

  • Multiple stage technique – Prepared by using more than one cooking method before they are a finished dish

    • Lyonnaise technique – potatoes are precooked, sliced, then fried

  • Easiest method and often 1st step is boiling

    Tips – Boiling

    • Start potatoes in cold water with enough liquid to cover

    • Test for doneness by piercing with a fork

    • Can be served immediately or held up to an hour.

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Cooking Potatoes

  • Steaming is the best way to cook new potatoes because of their high moisture content

    Tips – Steaming

    • Steam until very tender

    • Serve right away or held and served with another dish

  • Baked potatoes are always served in their skins. Idaho or Russets are the best baking potatoes

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Cooking Potatoes

Ways to bake Potatoes

  • Wrap in foil – soft skin, less fluffy

  • Rubbed with oil – soft skin, fluffy inside

  • No foil or oil – skin crisp

    Tips – Baking

  • Scrubbed clean

  • Pierced with fork – allow heat and steam to escape

  • Cook directly on rack or sheet pan

  • Serve immediately

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Cooking Potatoes

  • En casserole potato dishes combine peeled and sliced raw potatoes with heavy cream, sauce, or uncooked custard and slowly baked in a buttered pan

  • Sautéed potatoes should have crisp, evenly browned exterior with tender interior, never greasy or soggy

  • Russet potatoes are best for deep frying

  • Blanching is done by cooking briefly in a lower temperature frying fat (325) and refrigerate

  • Another name for potato pancakes is Latkes

  • Pureed potatoes are important as the basis of many popular dishes, such as mashed potatoes

  • Potatoes should be cooked in their own skin to retain nutrients

  • Ct and peeled potatoes should be in liquid to prevent discoloring

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Cooking Legumes

Grains and legumes must be cooked…

  • To change their texture – can be chewed and digested easily

  • To develop their flavor

  • To remove dirt, dust, or other natural substances harmful to humans

  • Grains and legumes must be rinsed carefully and in some cases soaked before cooking.

    Rinsing and soaking grains and legumes

    • Rinsed well in cold water

    • Placed in large pot with cold water

    • Discard any grains or legumes that float to the surface

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    Cooking Legumes

    • Rice is never soaked before cooking.

    • Soaking grains and legumes shorten cooking time

      Methods for soaking legumes

      • Overnight in cold water

      • Quick method – boiled briefly then soaked in hot water for one hour

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    Cooking Grains

    • Many grains should be soaked before they are cooked

    • The water softens the outer layer or bran when whole grains are soaked

      Methods for cooking grains

      • Steaming – tender to bite, good flavor

      • Pilaf – Tender remain separate, pleasing nutty flavor

      • Risotto – Sticky and creamy

    • Arborio is a special short grain rice used in the risotto method

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    Cooking Pastas

    • Fresh pastas cook quickly and have a short shelf life

    • Dried pastas take longer to cook and have a long shelf life

    • The most important stage in mixing pasta dough is the resting stage. This period should be 15-20 minutes

    • The purpose for resting the dough is to relax the dough and make it easier to roll

      Ingredients used in pasta dough

      • Bread flour

      • Eggs

      • Olive Oil

      • Salt

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    Cooking Pastas

    Tips – storing pasta

    • Fresh uncooked under refrigeration 1-2 days

    • Frozen

    • Stored for long time – should be dried

  • Sauce served with pasta should be right consistency to complement the type of pasta

  • Long flat pastas are best with smooth light cream sauces. Tube and twisted pastas are best with heavier sauces.

  • Pair sauce with a pasta’s particular flavor. Fresh pasta pairs well with light cream or butter based sauces. Dried pasta pairs well with heartier meat sauces

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    Cooking Dumplings

    Ways to cook Dumplings

    • Simmered

    • Steamed

    • Poached

    • Baked

    • Pan – fried

    • Deep – fried

    • Broiled

  • Dumplings are made from dough or batter

  • Spaetzle are small German dumplings, tasty in stews

  • Gnoocchi are small potato dumplings served in Italian cuisine

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