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Phylum Chordata. Deuterostome development Dorsal hollow nerve cord from ectoderm Notochord Stiff rod between nerve cord & intestine Support for muscular movements Pharyngeal gill slits Slits allow water to escape before stomach Post-anal tail. Phylum Chordata. Subphylum Urochordata

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phylum chordata
Phylum Chordata
  • Deuterostome development
  • Dorsal hollow nerve cord from ectoderm
  • Notochord
    • Stiff rod between nerve cord & intestine
    • Support for muscular movements
  • Pharyngeal gill slits
    • Slits allow water to escape before stomach
  • Post-anal tail
phylum chordata2
Phylum Chordata
  • Subphylum Urochordata
    • Tunicates (sea squirts)
    • Sessile adults filter water with gill slits
    • Incurrent & excurrent siphons
  • Subphylum Cephalochordata
    • Lancelets
    • Mobile adults bury body in sand w/ mouth out
    • Filter-feed across gill slits
subphylum vertebrata
Subphylum Vertebrata
  • Cranium around brain
  • Cartilaginous or bony vertebrae around nerve cord
    • Except hagfishes
  • Diversity of vertebrates
    • Superclass Agnatha (hagfish & lampreys)
      • Jawless fish
      • Lack paired appendages
      • Cartilaginous skeleton
    • Superclass Gnathostomata (jawed mouth)
vertebrata
Vertebrata
  • Class Chondrichthyes (sharks, rays, & skates)
    • Cartilaginous fishes
    • Some are oviparous (release eggs)
    • Some ovoviviparous (release after hatching)
    • Some are viviparous (nourished by placenta)
vertebrata5
Vertebrata
  • Class Osteichthyes
    • Bony fishes (ossified skeleton)
    • Ray-finned, Lobe-finned, & lung fishes
    • Ray-finned has most species
    • Gills covered by operculum
    • Swim bladder regulates buoyancy
terrestrial vertebrates
Terrestrial vertebrates
  • Class Amphibia
  • Amniotes
    • Class Reptilia
    • Class Aves
    • Class Mammalia
class amphibia
Class Amphibia
  • Tetrapod vertebrates
  • Ectothermic
  • Developing eggs & larva need aquatic environment
  • Gas exchange through skin, gills, lungs, &/or mouth
  • Orders
    • Order Anura (frogs & toads)
    • Order Urodela (salamanders)
    • Also caecilians
amniotes
Amniotes
  • Amniotic egg contains extra-embryonic membranes
    • Amnion: surrounds embryo
    • Allantois: for waste disposal
    • Yolk sac: stored nutrients for embryonic growth
    • Chorion: surrounds all these (exchanges gases)
  • Allow reproduction away from water
class reptilia
Class Reptilia
  • Internal fertilization
  • Leathery shelled amniotic eggs
    • Some have live birth (ovovivipary & vivipary)
  • No larval stage of development
  • Dry, scaly skin
  • Lung respiration
  • Nitrogenous waste is uric acid
  • Ectothermic
class reptilia10
Class Reptilia
  • Order Testudines
    • Sea turtles, tortoises, & terrapins
  • Order Squamata
    • Lizards & Snakes
  • Order Crocodilia
    • Crocodiles, caimans, & alligators
class aves
Class Aves
  • Hard-shelled egg
  • Adapted for flight
  • Hollow bones
  • Endothermic
  • Air sacs in addition to lungs
  • No teeth (gizzard does grinding)
  • Feathers
  • Bipedal (forelimbs are wings)
class aves12
Class Aves
  • 29 (or so) living orders with >8,500 species
  • Order Anseriformes (Ducks, geese, & swans)
  • Order Piciformes (Woodpeckers)
  • Order Falconiformes (Hawks, flacons, eagles)
  • Order Galliformes (Chickens, turkeys, etc.)
  • Order Passeriformes (songbirds)
    • Sparrows, finches, cardinals, mockingbirds, jays, crows, wrens, thrushes, etc
class mammalia
Class Mammalia
  • Endothermic
  • Hair
  • Mammary glands
  • Some oviparous (egg-laying)
    • Monotremes (platypus & echidna)
  • Most viviparous (nourished by placenta)
    • Marsupials
    • Eutherians
class mammalia14
Class Mammalia
  • About 4,500 species in 20 orders
  • Order Monotremata (platypus & echidnas)
  • Order Marsupialia (opossums, kangaroo, koala, etc)
  • Order Chiroptera (bats)
  • Order Carnivora (lions & tigers & bears!, also weasels, dogs, raccoons, seals, etc)
  • Order Cetacea (whales, dolphins)
  • Order Rodentia (rats, squirrels, beaver, etc.)
  • Order Primates (lemurs, monkeys, apes, & you)
order primates
Order Primates
  • Prosimians (e.g. lemurs)
  • Old-world monkeys (non-prehensile tails)
  • New-world monkeys (prehensile tails)
  • Apes
    • Gibbons
    • Orangutans
    • Chimpanzees
    • Gorillas
    • Humans
homonid evolution
Homonid evolution
  • Bipedalism
  • Brain size
  • Reduction in sexual dimorphism
    • Perhaps with switch to monogamy
    • Extended parental care
  • Tool use
  • Split from other ape ancestor some 5-7 million y.a.
  • Diversified into Australopithecus and Homo