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Challenges of Electrical Energy Storage. Daniel R. Borneo Sandia National Laboratories Energy Infrastructure and Distributed Energy Systems drborne@sandia.gov 505-284-9880 June 16, 2010.

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slide1

Challenges of Electrical Energy Storage

Daniel R. Borneo

Sandia National Laboratories

Energy Infrastructure and Distributed Energy Systems

drborne@sandia.gov

505-284-9880

June 16, 2010

Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2009-2801P

overview
Overview
  • Challenges of Electrical Grid Energy Storage
    • Technology
    • Costs
    • Regulatory
    • Market / Deployment
  • Next Phase of Energy Storage
    • New technologies
  • Summary
technology
Sodium Sulfur

Flow Batteries

Lithium ion

Lead Acid

Flywheels

Super Capacitors

Super Conductors

Pumped Hydro

CAES

Technology
slide5

Technology - Applications

POWER ENERGY

Applications Applications

LOAD

GRID

seconds minutes hours

5

technology power electronics
Technology – Power Electronics
  • Power Electronics make up 25-60% of system cost.
  • Power Electronics presently do not have the desired reliability
  • Power conversion from storage to grid adds size, complexity and cost.

Emitter Turn-off Thyristor

-

technology reliability
Technology - Reliability
  • Cycle life
    • Limited systems in operation
      • Cycle life unknown over 7-10+ year time frame
  • Annual Cost
    • Replacement Costs
    • Operational costs
technology capabilities
Technology - Capabilities
  • Need storage systems that can serve multiple applications
    • Need technology that has Energy and Power features
  • Laws of Physics + Laws of Chemistry = Murphy’s Law
grid independent zbb pecc w pv storage
Grid Independent ZBB PECC w/ PV& Storage

Technology – PV power Example

Courtesy of ZBB Energy - www.zbbenergy.com

cost challenges12
Cost - Challenges
  • Present estimated costs have poor ROI
  • Hard to get well defined budgeting costs
    • Capital
    • Operational
    • Hidden costs
  • How to recover costs
    • Who takes the risks
    • Who reaps the various and varying benefits
      • Example?
regulatory storage policy
Regulatory – Storage Policy

Regulatory Uncertainty

Numerous forums working issues

FERC, NERC, State, Industry

Advocates

Investors

Not all Energy Storage Technologies are alike

New Storage products may need new rules

Tariff Definitions Lacking

Diverse Applicability

Characteristics of energy storage

Generator or consumer

Some information on this sheet credited to SCE, Energy Storage Strategic Planning Project Presentation, May 25, 2010. Presenters: Alex Morris, Janos Kakuk

regulatory owner operator user
Regulatory - Owner/Operator/User

Generation/Transmission/Distribution/User

Is it generation, transmission, distribution or end user asset

Who owns, operates, maintains

Who’s taking the risk…Who’s reaping the benefits?

Cost recovery

Who has Jurisdiction of storage system installation and operation

Approval

Operation

Rate case, Tariffs

Bi-directional Flowdoes not fit into conventional

some goals being discussed
Some Goals Being Discussed

Cell and Component Metrics

Double energy storage density of electrochemical device by 2020

Some Common Energy Densities (From ESA)

Li-ion = 300 kWh/m^3

LA ~ 30-60+ kWh/m^3

System Metrics (From ARPA-e GRIDS Solicitation)

Technical Requirements

< $100/kWh(Streeeeeeeetch goal)

Minimum 60 min operation

0-100% in <10 minutes

Technical Targets

Minimum 5000 cycle life

>80 % RT eff, < 5% internal losses in 24hr

≥ 20kw for prototypes, Scalable to 1-10MW

+ 10 year life

We Need a revolution not an evolution!

Note: A good source for current technology specifications can be found at

http://www.electricitystorage.org/ESA/home/

19

slide21

SNL’s New Redox Couples for Flow Batteries

  • Materials research and development for:
  • Higher energy density because materials acts as both the electrolyte and storage medium
  • Low cost, Safety, Environmentally benign, Cost effective scale-up options
  • Year 1:
    • extend concept to multivalent cations (beyond copper, iron, and zinc)
  • Year 2:
    • evaluate anion effect(s)
    • develop structure-activity relationships
  • Year 3:
    • complete laboratory prototype

21

snl s full air breathing battery concept
SNL’s Full Air Breathing Battery Concept

Concept is to use O2 and N2 as the electrodes in a battery

Novel because N2 is considered inert

SNL routinely reacts N2 electrochemically

Challenging but appears feasible

Enormous potential impact on stationary and mobile energy storage in both density and economic value

Zn/Air has the highest energy density of aqueous battery chemistries because the weight of the cathode is not included in the calculation. The energy density would increase greatly beyond Zn/Air if the anode material were also derived from the air.

  • Year 1 - Establish electrochemical behavior in a novel electrolyte solution
  • Year 2 - Develop catalyzed anode & cathode structure
  • Year 3 - Complete cell integration & laboratory prototype

22

slide23

PNNL’s Low Cost, Long Life Li-Ion for

Community Storage

a

1.5~1.7 V

e-1

e-1

b

Li+

Li+

Li+

Li+

Li+

Li+

Li+

Cathode: Olivine LiFePO4

Anode: Li4Ti5O12

TiO2/Graphene

Membrane

(001)

Charge

  • Take a different approach from that for vehicle applications, by emphasizing life and cost, instead of energy/power density
  • Develop unique Li-ion batteries made from cost-effective electrode materials that may allow for a long cycle life (>6,000 deep cycles)
  • Future work focuses on materials optimization, battery scale up and prototype system development

Self-assembling

Cathode: LiFePO4

Anode: self-assembled TiO2/graphene

Electrolyte: 1M LiPF6 in EC/DMC

23

slide24

PNNL’s High Performance Redox Flow

for Large Scale Storage

  • Redox flow batteries (RFB) allow for separate design of energy and power, capable of large scale energy storage for hours of discharge
  • However, present technologies are struggling to be technically and economically feasible at high power/energy ratings for broad market penetration
  • PNNL is developing new generation RFB that employ cost-effective, optimized electrolytes, membrane and electrodes to meet performance and cost-requirements for grid applications

24

solar energy grid integration systems energy storage segis es
Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems Energy Storage (SEGIS-ES)
  • Distribution Scale PV up to 100 kW
  • Residential
  • Small Commercial
  • Microgrids

Develop Storage Technologies basedon current state-of-art for use with grid tied PV systems

sandia s battery component system testing
Sandia’s Battery, Component & System Testing

Utilities require impartial, third party testing before commitment to innovative storage devices and systems

Cycle life, abuse, accelerated testing

Development of testing protocols for various applications

Startup, commissioning and functional acceptance testing of storage Systems

Monitoring, data acquisition and analysis of demonstration projects

ESMA Asymmetric SuperCap

Maxwell Symmetric Supercap

Okamura Labs SuperCap (ECaSS) Propylene Carbonate

Enersys Cyclon VRLA

Electro Energy Bipolar NiMH

Saft Li-ion

Tadiran Li-SOCl2

NessCap Symmetric SuperCap Acetonitrile

NessCap Symmetric SuperCap Propylene Carbonate

East Penn Solar Gel VRLA

Battery Energy SunGel VRLA

Battery Energy ALABC carbon VRLA

East Penn Unigy II VRLA

Beacon

ZBB

C&D MS Endure VRL

Enersys PowerSafe V16) Exide Absolyte VRLA

C&D Dynasty VRLA

C&D 2XTHCP vented Lead-Acid

NorthStar VRLA

NorthStar ALABC carbon enhanced VRLA

LiFeBatt Li-FePO4

Neosonic Li-FePO4 Polymer

East Penn ALABC carbon enhanced large format VRLA

Furukawa Ultrabattery VRLA

C&D CPV Photovoltaic Lead-Acid Battery

GS-Yuasa Silica/tubular VRLA

East Penn Large Format ALABC PV Energy Smoothing Battery

Maxwell

conclusions
Conclusions

Energy Storage makes “cents”…but it needs to make dollars.

Need to get more systems in the field to drive down cost and increase system understanding and reliability

Regulatory organizations need to develop rules of engagement

Industry needs to develop means to reward the risk takers

Holy Grail? Searching 2000 years for something which we we’re not sure what?

reference material
Reference Material
  • Benefit/Cost Framework for Evaluating Modular Energy Storage. SAND2008-0978. Addresses cost and performance for various types of energy storage. Also includes benefit/cost assessment examples for specific value propositions.
  • Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems –Energy Storage (SEGIS-ES). SAND2008-4247. Describes themes related to augmentation of the Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) Program with energy storage for residential and small commercial systems (SEGIS-ES). (SEGIS is an industry-led effort to enhance the utility of distributed PV systems.)
  • Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) Load and Resources Profiles. SAND2007-4268. Characterizes load and generation resource profiles that might be accommodated by Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) systems used for rural electrification projects around the world.
  • Long vs. Short-Term Energy Storage: Sensitivity Analysis. SAND2007-4253. Characterizes long-duration and short-duration energy storage technologies, primarily on the basis of life-cycle cost, including sensitivity to various input assumptions, for three application categories.
  • Installation of the First Distributed Energy Storage System (DESS) at American Electric Power (AEP). SAND2007-3580. Describes direct and indirect benefits, strengths, and weaknesses of distributed energy storage systems (DESS) for use by AEP. DESS was investigated as “a way to transform its grid into a system that achieves optimal integration of both central and distributed energy assets.”
  • NAS® Battery Demonstration at American Electric Power. SAND2006-6740. Documents results of a demonstration of the sodium/sulfur battery (NAS) system by American Electric Power, including an economic analysis of a commercial NAS system at a typical site. Also included is a side-by-side demonstration of the capabilities of the NAS, a lead-acid battery system and flywheel-based energy storage for improving power quality.
  • Estimating Electricity Storage Power Rating and Discharge Duration for Utility Transmission and Distribution Deferral. SAND2005-7069. A framework for estimating power and energy requirements for storage used to defer a transmission or distribution upgrade.