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Mobile and Location-Based Services

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  1. Mobile and Location-Based Services Jason I. Hong jasonh@cs.cmu.edu May 04 2007

  2. The Big Picture • Mobile social computing • inTouch: Coordination for Families and Small Groups • Whisper Mobile: Coordinating groups for social events • Large-scale mobile collaboration • Hitchhiking: Estimating “busyness” of places • Mobile data • Gurungo: linking desktop and mobile devices • Usable privacy and security • Contextual Instant Messaging • People Finder • Grey: Access control to resources • Memory support • Memory Karaoke

  3. The Big Picture • Mobile social computing • inTouch: Coordination for Families and Small Groups • Whisper Mobile: Coordinating groups for social events • Large-scale mobile collaboration • Hitchhiking: Estimating “busyness” of places • Mobile data • Gurungo: linking desktop and mobile devices • Usable privacy and security • Contextual Instant Messaging • People Finder • Grey: Access control to resources • Memory support • Memory Karaoke

  4. inTouch: Coordination for Families • Make it easier to coordinate with others while mobile • Better awareness and messaging • Target Users: • Small to med. groups of people • Fluid and demanding schedule • Multiple responsibilities • Examples: • Dual-career families • Work groups • Ad hoc (ex. conferences) • Carpools Mobility Messaging Awareness

  5. Dual-Career Families • Coordination breakdowns inevitable • Children’s activities change without notice • Parent’s meetings run over • Impromptu appointments • Unexpected traffic • Result: • High levels of anxiety • Some parents fear about “forgetting” their children • Need support for awareness and improvisation

  6. inTouch: Coordination for Families • Two week field study with six dual-career families

  7. Check, Double Check, Triple Check

  8. Key Transition Times

  9. inTouch: Coordination for Families • Make it easier to coordinate with others while mobile • Better awareness • Contextual messaging • Combines: • Shared calendar • Shared todo lists • Reminders • Real-time location • Proximity

  10. Project: InTouch It’s 4:30pm and Mom is stuck in traffic inTouch checks her calendar and sees she’s supposed to pick up Cindy from ballet

  11. Project: InTouch Mom’s phone senses that she is in a traffic jam, and automatically prepares a status message Mom hits “send”, and Cindy sees that Mom is running late. Cindy decides to wait inside.

  12. Contextual Messaging • Using current context to: • Select a message template • Fill in the blanks (like a MadLib) • In most cases, can just hit “send” • When is contextual messaging useful? • Calendar alarms “running late, will be there in <ETA>” • Current activity “in a meeting now, done at <time>” • Daily rhythms “picked up kid ok” at 3PM • Messages received “where r u?” -> “I am at <place>”

  13. Contextual Messaging • Messaging can be linked to calendar or reminders • S: Can you get dinner tonight? • J: Ok, I will pick up __________ on my way home • Activate as a reminder when you leave work Message easy to select around 4PM Fill in the blank based on patterns and what’s near your home

  14. Example Mockups • Currently developing working prototypes

  15. The Big Picture • Mobile social computing • inTouch: Coordination for Families and Small Groups • Whisper Mobile: Coordinating groups for social events • Large-scale mobile collaboration • Hitchhiking: Estimating “busyness” of places • Mobile data • Gurungo: linking desktop and mobile devices • Usable privacy and security • Contextual Instant Messaging • People Finder • Grey: Access control to resources • Memory support • Memory Karaoke

  16. Whisper Mobile • Goal: Make it easy to find, share, and coordinate friends going to social events

  17. Whisper Mobile: Creating an Event • Minimal text input • Use location • Use audio • Use camera

  18. Continuing Work • Developing working prototype of web site and mobile • Web crawler for finding social events • Web site to coordinate on scale of weeks and days • Link with inTouch • Coordinate friends • See who’s late, where we’re going next • Mobile to coordinate on scale of hours and minutes

  19. The Big Picture • Mobile social computing • inTouch: Coordination for Families and Small Groups • Whisper Mobile: Coordinating groups for social events • Large-scale mobile collaboration • Hitchhiking: Estimating “busyness” of places • Mobile data • Gurungo: linking desktop and mobile devices • Usable privacy and security • Contextual Instant Messaging • People Finder • Grey: Access control to resources • Memory support • Memory Karaoke

  20. Project: Hitchhiking • Most location-based services about where you are • Hitchhiking is about the “busyness” of places • “Is the café busy?” • “How long are the lines at the airport?” • “Where’s an empty room?” • Is there any parking at the shopping district?

  21. Project: Hitchhiking • Estimate number of people in a place by counting the number of wireless devices there • Periodically upload count + location to our servers • Other people can query our servers

  22. Project: Hitchhiking • How well does Hitchhiking work?

  23. Project: Hitchhiking • Privacy? • Upload anonymized counts only • Upload from approved places only • Our server shows “busyness” of a place only • Advantages • Cheap, uses existing devices (everyone is a “sensor”) • Deployable, don’t have to set up lots of new sensors • Privacy • What’s next? • Map visualizations

  24. The Big Picture • Mobile social computing • inTouch: Coordination for Families and Small Groups • Whisper Mobile: Coordinating groups for social events • Large-scale mobile collaboration • Hitchhiking: Estimating “busyness” of places • Mobile data • Gurungo: linking desktop and mobile devices • Usable privacy and security • Contextual Instant Messaging • People Finder • Grey: Access control to resources • Memory support • Memory Karaoke

  25. GurunGo • Goal: Make it easy to access useful information while mobile • Observation #1: People still tend to print out online maps, despite having mobile device. Why? • Found it via desktop, easier to print than to copy to mobile • Slow or expensive wireless connections • Inconvenient form factor on mobile device • Observation #2: People don’t do the same kind of web browsing on mobile phones as on desktops • Don’t have to support all information finding tasks, just ones more likely to be done when mobile

  26. GurunGo Scenarios • Idea: Tie mobile more closely with desktop • You find an interesting product while browsing • Use GurunGo to copy-and-paste to mobile • Augments with product reviews • Copies to mobile • Kept until explicitly deleted • As you browse web on desktop: • GurunGo scans HTML for maps • Generates speech-based directions • Copies to mobile • Directions eventually discarded after given time

  27. GurunGo Usage • Acquire • Let people explicitly copy-and-paste info to mobile • Let people implicitly copy info via regular web browsing • GurunGo scans pages seen for potentially useful stuff • Augment • Look for known data types, make mobile data more useful • Ex. Augment maps with speech-based directions • Copy (to mobile in the background) • Browse • Organize data based on common data types • Street addresses, product comparisons, phone #s

  28. GurunGo: Speech-based Directions

  29. Nice Features of GurunGo • Reduces number of clicks to get to useful information • Can support specific information finding tasks while mobile • Currently: Directions, products • Future: Movies, phone #s, dates and times, recent emails • Works even if you don’t have wide-area wireless • Works disconnected (no network or don’t want to pay) • Only needs personal area network (Bluetooth)

  30. The Big Picture • Mobile social computing • inTouch: Coordination for Families and Small Groups • Whisper Mobile: Coordinating groups for social events • Large-scale mobile collaboration • Hitchhiking: Estimating “busyness” of places • Mobile data • Gurungo: linking desktop and mobile devices • Usable privacy and security • Contextual Instant Messaging • People Finder • Grey: Access control to resources • Memory support • Memory Karaoke

  31. The Problem • Mobile devices becoming integrated into everyday life • Mobile communication • Sharing location information with others • Remote access to home • Mobile e-commerce • Managing security and privacy policies is hard • Preferences hard to articulate • Policies hard to specify • Limited input and output • Leads to new sources of vulnerability and frustration

  32. Our Goal • Develop core set of technologies for managing privacy and security on mobile devices • Simple UIs for specifying policies • Clear notifications and explanations of what happened • Better visualizations to summarize results • Machine learning for learning preferences • Start with small evaluations, continue with large-scale ones • Large multi-disciplinary team and project • Six faculty, 1.5 postdocs, six students • Supported by NSF, CMU CyLab • Roughly 1 year into project

  33. The Big Picture • Mobile social computing • inTouch: Coordination for Families and Small Groups • Whisper Mobile: Coordinating groups for social events • Large-scale mobile collaboration • Hitchhiking: Estimating “busyness” of places • Mobile data • Gurungo: linking desktop and mobile devices • Usable privacy and security • Contextual Instant Messaging • People Finder • Grey: Access control to resources • Memory support • Memory Karaoke

  34. Contextual Instant Messaging • Facilitate coordination and communication by letting people request contextual information via IM • Interruptibility (via SUBTLE toolkit) • Location (via Place Lab WiFi positioning) • Active window • Developed a custom client and robot on top of AIM • Client (Trillian plugin) captures and sends context to robot • People can query imbuddy411 robot for info • “howbusyis username” • Robot also contains privacy rules governing disclosure

  35. Contextual Instant MessagingPrivacy Mechanisms • Web-based specification of privacy preferences • Users can create groups andput screennames into groups • Users can specify what each group can see

  36. Contextual Instant MessagingPrivacy Mechanisms • Notifications of requests

  37. Contextual Instant MessagingPrivacy Mechanisms • Social translucency

  38. Contextual Instant MessagingPrivacy Mechanisms • Audit logs

  39. Contextual Instant MessagingEvaluation • Recruited ten people for two weeks • Selected people highly active in IM (ie undergrads ) • Each participant had ~90 buddies and 1300 incoming and outgoing messages per week • Notified other parties of imbuddy411 service • Update AIM profile to advertise • Would notify other parties at start of conversation

  40. Contextual Instant MessagingResults • Total of 242 requests for contextual information • 53 distinct screen names, 13 repeat users

  41. Contextual Instant MessagingResults • 43 privacy groups, ~4 per participant • Groups organized as class, major, clubs,gender, work, location, ethnicity, family • 6 groups revealed no information • 7 groups disclosed all information • Only two instances of changes to rules • In both cases, friend asked participant to increase level of disclosure

  42. Contextual Instant MessagingResults • Likert scale survey at end • 1 is strongly disagree, 5 is strongly agree • All participants agreed contextual information sensitive • Interruptibility 3.6, location 4.1, window 4.9 • Participants were comfortable using our controls (4.1) • Easy to understand (4.4) and modify (4.2) • Good sense of who had seen what (3.9) • Participants also suggested improvements • Notification of offline requests • Better notifications to reduce interruptions (abnormal use) • Better summaries (“User x asked for location 5 times today”)

  43. Contextual Instant MessagingCurrent Status • Preparing for another round of deployment • Larger group of people • A few more kinds of contextual information • Developing privacy controls that scale better • More people, more kinds of information

  44. The Big Picture • Mobile social computing • inTouch: Coordination for Families and Small Groups • Whisper Mobile: Coordinating groups for social events • Large-scale mobile collaboration • Hitchhiking: Estimating “busyness” of places • Mobile data • Gurungo: linking desktop and mobile devices • Usable privacy and security • Contextual Instant Messaging • People Finder • Grey: Access control to resources • Memory support • Memory Karaoke

  45. People Finder • Location useful for micro-coordination • Meeting up • Okayness checking • Developed phone-based client • GSM localization (Intel) • Conducted studies to see how people specify rules (& how well) • See how well machine learning can learn preferences

  46. People FinderMachine Learning • Using case-based reasoning (CBR) • “My colleagues can only see my location on weekdays and only between 8am and 6pm” • It’s now 6:15pm, so the CBR might allow, or interactively ask • Chose CBR over other machine learning • Better dialogs with users (ie more understandable) • Can be done as you go (rather than accumulating large corpus and doing post-hoc)

  47. People FinderCurrent Work • Small-scale deployment of phone-based People Finder with a group of friends • Still needs more value, people finder by itself not sufficient • Trying to understand pain points on next iteration • Need more accurate location • GSM localization accuracy haphazard • Integration with imbuddy411 • Smart phones expensive, IM vastly increases user base

  48. The Big Picture • Mobile social computing • inTouch: Coordination for Families and Small Groups • Whisper Mobile: Coordinating groups for social events • Large-scale mobile collaboration • Hitchhiking: Estimating “busyness” of places • Mobile data • Gurungo: linking desktop and mobile devices • Usable privacy and security • Contextual Instant Messaging • People Finder • Grey: Access control to resources • Memory support • Memory Karaoke

  49. Grey – Access Control to Resources • Distributed smartphone-based access control system • physical resources like office doors, computers, and coke machines • electronic ones like computer accounts and electronic files • currently only physical doors • Proofs assembled from credentials • No central access control list • End-users can create flexible policies