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Changes in the seasonal activity of temperate and boreal vegetation The critical role of Autumn temperatures. Shilong Piao, Philippe Ciais , Pierre Friedlingstein, Philippe Peylin , Nicolas Viovy and Peter Rayner LSCE, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ Gif sur Yvette, France

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slide1
Changes in the seasonal activity

of temperate and boreal vegetation

The critical role of Autumn temperatures.

Shilong Piao, Philippe Ciais,

Pierre Friedlingstein, Philippe Peylin, Nicolas Viovy and

Peter Rayner

LSCE, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ

Gif sur Yvette, France

Carbon Fusion Meeting 9-11 May 2006

slide2
Background

delayed fall

earlier spring

Jan

Jul Aug

Dec

As temperature is rising, the length of growing season usually increases.

How will the net Carbon Uptake Period respond to the warming ?

global biospheric model orchidee
meteorological forcing

output variables

sensible & latent heat fluxes, CO2 flux, net radiation

rain, température, humidity,

incoming radiation, wind, CO2

SECHIBA

energy & water cycle

photosynthesis

ORCHIDEE

Dt = 1 hour

LAI,

roughness,

albedo

soil water,

surface temperature,

GPP

LPJ

spatial distribution

of vegetation

(competition, fire,…)

NPP, biomass,

litterfall

STOMATE

vegetation & soil carbon cycle

(phénologie, allocation,…)

vegetation

types

vegetation

types

Dt = 1 year

Dt = 1 day

prescribed vegetation

Global biospheric model ORCHIDEE
slide4
ORCHIDEE model simulations
  • Spin up (1000 y) using 1901 climate data, and 1850 CO2 concentration
  • Simulate from 1850 to 1900 using 1901-1910 climate data, and corresponding every year CO2 concentration.
  • Simulate from 1901 to 2002, using corresponding every year climate data and CO2 concentration. Save every day C flux from 1980 to 2002.
slide7
Satellite sensor change

Interannual Variability in LAI

Spring

SDORCHIDEE = 0.04

SDGIMMS = 0.06

SDPAL = 0.19

Autumn

SDORCHIDEE = 0.02

SDGIMMS = 0.07

SDPAL = 0.13

slide8
D

B

A

C

Define growing season and carbon uptake periods

CUP

GSL

Growing Season

From rate of change of LAI

Carbon Uptake

From NEP zero-crossing dates

C = net carbon uptake start

D = net carbon uptake end

CD = Carbon Uptake Period (CUP)

A = growing season start

B = growing season end

AB = growing season length (GSL)

slide9
Carbon Uptake

Growing season

(phenology)

Mapping the growing season and carbon uptake timing

Onset date increases with increasing latitude

CUP start occurs later than GS start (because of spring respiration)

Start (day)

The distribution of End date in autumn is less uniform than in spring, (reflects vegetation type, as well as water / temperature limitations on plant growth).

End (day)

Shortest GSL = Central Siberia near the Arctic coast (4 months).

Shortest CUP = Northern Eurasian forests and water limited steppes - also show the shortest GS length.

Duration (days)

Derived from ORCHIDEE simulation

slide10
Trends GSL and CUP during 1980-2002

Spring

dGSLstart/dt = 0.16 days/yr

dCUPstart/dt = 0.19 days/yr

Same response of CUPstart and GSLstart to warming trend

RGSLstart-temp =-0.91 P<0.001

RCUPstart-temp = -0.62 P=0.002

Autumn

dGSLend/dt = 0.14 days/yr

dCUPend/dt = -0.07 days/yr

Opposite response of CUPend and GSLend to warming trend !

RGSLend-temp = 0.71 P<0.001

RCUPend-temp = -0.51 P=0.01

ORCHIDEE > 25°N

slide11
Carbon Uptake Trends

Growing season

Trends

Mapping the trends

More than 70% of the study region exhibits an advancing trend in the GSL start, especially in Eurasia.

In North America, large regions show delayed trends in the CUP start

Beginning

GSL: most of northern North America shows a trend towards later GSL end, BUT there is a trend to earlier GSL end in temperate Western Eurasia (Europe).

CUP: 70% of the study region display a trend towards an earlier CUP end.

End

GSL length : Trends to increasing GSL over high latitude regions, usually as a result of earlier beginning of growing season in Eurasia and later end of growing season in North America

CUP length : North America shows a trend to shorter CUP length, Eurasia has the opposite behaviour

Length

Derived from ORCHIDEE

slide12
Comparison with satellite observation

Spring

Autumn

(1) Period from 1980-2002; (2) Period from 1982-1998; (3) Period from 1988-2000

slide13
Atmosphere CO2 measurements
  • Although Keeling et al. (1996) found that there were no significant long-term changes in the upward zero crossing time at site Mauna Loa from mid-1970s to 1994, pronounced advancement at a rate of 0.77 days yr-1 (R=-0.65, P=0.001) is observed in the period of 1980-2002.
slide14
Temperature vs. Carbon Uptake Period

Spring

RBRW = -0.85, P<0.001

RMLO= -0.40, P=0.056

Autumn

RBRW = -0.60, P=0.003

RMLO= -0.59, P=0.005 (excluding 1992, 1993)

slide15
Differential response of gross C Fluxes to the warming trend in Northern Hemisphere (>25°N)

Spring: Warm temperatures accelerate growth more than soil decomposition. The annual relationship of NEP to temperature is positive

=> Warming enhances carbon uptake

Autumn: Warm autumn accelerate growth less than soil decomposition. The annual relationship of flux to temperature is negative.

=> Warming reduces carbon uptake

Derived from ORCHIDEE

slide17
Conclusion
  • Most of the study region exhibited extending of GSL, usually as a result of earlier vegetation green-up in Eurasia and later vegetation senescence in North America, which strongly supports a lengthening of growing season and greening trend at northern hemispheric observed in the past two decades.
  • Due to parallel stimulating soil carbon decomposition, increase in GSL does not necessarily lead to increase in CUP and eventually result in higher C net uptake.
  • Autumn warming does not benefit terrestrial net C uptake through postponing vegetation growing season end in the northern mid and high latitudes.
relevance to igco
Relevance to IGCO
  • Need for in situ phenological data
  • Need of long flux time series to confirm processe
  • Need for snow cover / frozen status of soil data
  • Long term satellite biophysical products (large differences between sensors & data processing)
  • New CO2 column satellite obseravtions may allow an unprecedented quantification of the spatial distribution in the CO2 seasonal cycle -> regional trends detection
  • Integration of surface with atmospheric information
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