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Confined Rescue – A Timeline to Rescue. and Rescue Systems. By Michael Lafreniere. Ohio University-Chillicothe Environmental Training and Research Center (ETRC) www.ohiou.edu/chillicothe/etrc/. Defining Response Time. Reaction Time Contact Time Response Time Assessment Time

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confined rescue a timeline to rescue

Confined Rescue – A Timeline to Rescue

and

Rescue Systems

By Michael Lafreniere

Ohio University-Chillicothe

Environmental Training and Research Center (ETRC)

www.ohiou.edu/chillicothe/etrc/

defining response time
Defining Response Time
  • Reaction Time
  • Contact Time
  • Response Time
  • Assessment Time
  • Preparation Time
  • Rescue Time
reaction time
Reaction Time
  • Time between the entrant having a problem requiring rescue and the safety attendant’s recognition that the entrant has problem
contact time
Contact Time
  • The time taken by the attendant to contact the rescue team.
response time
Response Time
  • The time taken by the rescuers to arrive at the scene of the rescue after contact.
assessment time
Assessment Time
  • The time taken by a rescue team to size up the problem and determine the strategy to perform a safe, efficient rescue
preparation time
Preparation Time
  • The time take by a rescue team to set up for the rescue.
rescue time
Rescue Time
  • The time taken for the team to reach, treat, package, and evacuate the victim from the confined space.
untimely rescue response
Untimely Rescue Response
  • CPR Emergency – Goal: 4 minutes
    • OSHA Preamble
  • Golden Hour
    • Patient delivery within an hour of the injury
    • Example
      • Falls off a ladder
      • Broken Bones
rescue response time goals
Rescue Response Time Goals
  • On-Site Team
    • Almost impossible to respond to a rescue summons and reach a victim within OSHA’s goal of 4 minutes
    • Unless using Rescue-Standby (team is already set up)
  • Appropriate Goal
    • Initiate patient transport to the hospital within 30-40 minutes of the incident
rescue response time goal
Rescue Response Time Goal
  • 0 – 3 minutes
    • Permit-Required Confined Space incident occurs and rescue team is called
  • 3 – 13 minutes (10 min. duration)
    • Rescue Team Arrives at the Scene
  • 13 – 23 minutes (10 min. duration)
    • Rescue Team Sizes up and Prepares to initiate rescue
  • 23 – 38 minutes (15 min. duration)
    • Rescue team reaches and rescues patient.
  • 38 – 53 minutes (15 min. duration)
    • Patient is transported and arrives at emergency room
rescue response decision making criteria
Rescue Response Decision-Making Criteria
  • Rescue Standby (RS)
    • Requires team to be present and able to enter the space immediately and reach the patient in 2 to 4 minutes
  • Rescue Available (RA)
    • Requires the team to be able to respond to the entry site in about 10 minutes and reach the patient approximately 5 minutes later.
  • Can Catergorize PRCS – PrePlan
    • Best to assign on an entry by entry basis
rescue response categories
Rescue Response Categories
  • Rescue Available
    • Do not require entrants to wear fresh air breathing equipment
    • Do not expose the entrant to any obvious IDLH or potential IDLH hazard
    • Do not warrant rescue personnel standing by during the entry, and
    • Do not require the entrant to have assistance to exit the space, under normal circumstances
rescue response categories14
Rescue Response Categories
  • Space in which entrants are required to use fresh air breathing equipment
  • Spaces in which an obvious IDLH hazard exists or potentially exists, and/or
  • Spaces from which an entrant would be expected to have difficulty exiting without help
determining rescue response
Determining Rescue Response
  • Entry Supervisor must decide for each entry
  • Three questions should be asked
    • Is the hazard or potential hazard immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH)?
    • Is breathing air required for entry?
    • Would the entrant have difficulty exiting the space unassisted?
  • Any “yes” – then Rescue Standby (RS)
references
References
  • Confined Space and Structural Rope Rescue, Michael Roop, Thomas Vines, and Richard Wright, Published by Mosby, Inc., 1998.
  • Confined Space: Entry and Rescue – A Training Manual, Published by CMC Rescue, Inc., 1996.
standards and regulations
Standards and Regulations
  • NFPA
    • Consensus standards – voluntary compliance
  • ANSI
    • U.S. & international standards
    • Consensus standards – voluntary compliance.
    • Mandatory when referenced by OSHA in regulations
  • ASTM
    • Currently writing standards on Search and Rescue
    • Consensus Standards – voluntary compliance
  • OSHA
    • None on rope rescue
equipment description and capabilities ropes
Equipment Description and Capabilities – Ropes
  • Used for
    • Primary tool in technical rescue
  • Vary in construction, material and size
  • Most common in C.S.
    • ½ inch, strength 9,000 lbs.
    • Static kernmantle (low stretch)
    • Dynamic kernmantle (high stretch)
equipment description and capabilities webbing
Equipment Description and Capabilities – Webbing
  • Used for
    • Tying anchors
    • Lashing victims into a litter
    • Tying personal harness
  • Vary in construction, material and size
  • Most common in C.S.
    • 1 inch, spiral weave, tubular, nylon
    • Strength 4,500 lbs.
equipment description and capabilities prusik loop
Equipment Description and Capabilities – Prusik Loop
  • Used for
    • Tie friction knots around rescue rope
    • Ratchets
    • Point of attachments
  • Most common in C.S.
    • 8 mm, nylon
equipment description and capabilities anchor straps
Equipment Description and Capabilities – Anchor Straps
  • Used for
    • Quick, strong anchors for attaching ropes and systems
  • Most common in C.S.
    • 1 ¾ inch, flat nylon webbing
    • Strength 8,000 lbs.
equipment description and capabilities harness
Equipment Description and Capabilities – Harness
  • Used for
    • Fall protection
    • Confined space rescue
  • Most common in C.S.
    • Flat nylon webbing
    • Full body
    • Point of attachment in the center of the back at shoulder level
equipment description and capabilities carabiners
Equipment Description and Capabilities – Carabiners
  • Used for
    • Attach equipment together in rescue systems
  • Vary in construction, shape, material and size
  • Most common in C.S.
    • Large
    • Locking
equipment description figure eight descender
Equipment Description – Figure Eight Descender
  • Used for
    • Rappelling
    • Lowering
    • Belay systems
equipment description and capabilities brake bar rack

(Minimum Strength)

(Maximum Strength)

Equipment Description and Capabilities – Brake Bar Rack
  • Used for
    • Control a rescue load
    • Add or subtract friction
equipment description and capabilities edge protection
Equipment Description and Capabilities – Edge Protection
  • Used for
    • Protects rope and anchors
    • Increases efficiency on rope hauling systems
equipment description and capabilities pulleys
Equipment Description and Capabilities – Pulleys
  • Used for
    • Change the direction of moving ropes
    • Build mechanical advantage into rope hauling systems
equipment description and capabilities pulleys29
Equipment Description and Capabilities – Pulleys
  • First Class Lever
    • R (resistance)
    • F (fulcrum)
    • E (effort)
    • Fixed Pulley
  • Second Class Lever
    • F (fulcrum)
    • R (resistance)
    • E (effort)
    • Moving Pulley
equipment description and capabilities tripod
Equipment Description and Capabilities – Tripod
  • Used for
    • Access to vertical entry
  • Most common in C.S.
    • 9-foot height or greater
equipment description and capabilities winch
Equipment Description and Capabilities – Winch
  • Used for
    • Assist with tripods
  • Most common in C.S.
    • Retractable designated for non-entry rescue
    • Certified as a primary lowering device
equipment description full body splint sked stretcher
Equipment Description –Full Body Splint / Sked Stretcher
  • Used for
    • Confined Space Rescue
    • Protection for victim
  • Most common in C.S.
    • Together supply most support
static system safety factor sssf
Static System Safety Factor (SSSF)
  • Safety factor
    • Ratio between minimum breaking strength of a piece of equipment and the greatest force it is expected to experience during a rescue.
  • Standard
    • No standard mandating what the SSSF should be.
    • Mountain rescue teams use 4:1
    • Rescue organizations use 10:1
    • Fire service teams use 15:1
      • (NFPA Standard 1983 specified the strength of a life support line to be 15 times the load.)
knots
Knots
  • Knot efficiency
    • Knots rated for strength by the percentage of rope strength that remain when a knot is tied in the rope.
    • Knots should always be tied off.
knot figure eight

(Step 1)

(Step 2)

(Step 3)

Knot – Figure Eight
  • Used to tie other knots
  • Used as a stopper knot
knot figure eight on a bight

(Step 1)

(Step 3)

(Step 2)

Knot - Figure Eight on a Bight
  • Used to make a loop in a rope
  • Knot efficiency = 80%
knots water knot

(Step 5)

(Step 1)

(Step 2)

(Step 3)

(Step 4)

Knots – Water Knot
  • Used to tie webbing together
  • Knot efficiency = 64%
knots double fisherman

Front

(Step 3)

(Step 1)

(Step 2)

(Step 4)

(Step 5)

Back

Knots – Double Fisherman
  • (a.k.a.) double overhand bend
  • Used to tie prusik loops
  • Knot efficiency = 79%
knot prusik loop

(Step 5)

(Step 2)

(Step 4)

(Step 3)

(Step 1)

Knot – Prusik Loop
  • Friction Knot
anchors
Anchors
  • Foundations that all rope systems are built on
  • Experience and Judgment
backed up anchor
Backed Up Anchor
  • Anchor with another anchor of equal strength
  • Load increases as the interior angle increases
load distributing anchors self equalizing
Load Distributing Anchors (Self Equalizing)
  • Allows the load to be distributed to each anchor point by permitting the point of attachment to shift within the anchor
  • Solves the problem caused by a load shift
  • Problem:
    • One anchor point fails, the shift to the remaining anchor points will cause a drop in the system
  • Solution:
    • Keep the anchor legs as short as possible
rescue systems
Rescue Systems
  • Starts with an anchor
  • Next, hardware and rope to complete the system
  • Be prepared to modify the system during the rescue
rescue systems simple pulley systems
Rescue Systems – Simple Pulley Systems
  • All moving pulleys moving at the same speed as the load
rescue systems compound pulley systems
Rescue Systems – Compound Pulley Systems
  • Pulley systems pulling on other pulley systems
rescue systems complex pulley systems
Rescue Systems – Complex Pulley Systems
  • Moving Pulleys that move at different speeds
rescue systems belay systems
Rescue Systems – Belay Systems
  • Backup systems for primary rope systems.
  • OSHA mandates fall protection.
for assistance more information
For assistance/more information:

Contact:

Michael LafreniereOhio University-ChillicotheEnvironmental Training and Research Center101 University DriveChillicothe, OH 45601Phone: (740) 774-7278

Email: lafrenie@ohio.edu

Web: www.ohiou.edu/chillicothe/etrc/