General AviationAircraft Rescue Fire Fighting Aircraft Familiarization Training Don Elliott Columbia Regional Airport Columbia, Missouri firstname.lastname@example.org
Types of Aircraft & Accident Statistics • 78% of active civil aircraft are single engine. • 10% of active civil aircraft are light twin engine. • 12% of active civil aircraft are over 12,500 lbs. • 95% of all aircraft accidents occur within 10 miles of an airport.
General aviation aircraft are the greatest potential hazard to a firefighter.
Primary Hazards • Fire - Class A, B, C, and D. • Toxic Fumes/Smoke. • Explosions - Ordnance/ Fuel Cells/ Cargo/ Oxygen Tanks
Aircraft Terminology Fixed Wing Aircraft Components
Fuselage • The main body structure of an Aircraft. Houses the crew, passengers and cargo. The wings, landing gear, and tail are attached to it.
Wings • Designed to develop the major portion of the lift required for heavier-than-air aircraft.
Empennage • The aircraft tail assemble including the vertical and horizontal stabilizers, rudders and elevators.
Cockpit • The fuselage compartment occupied by the pilots.
Canopy • Transparent enclosure over the cockpit of fighter type aircraft.
Engines • Power plants for the aircraft. • Can be- Piston, Turboprop or Jet. • Engines are numbered consecutively from the pilots left to right. (i.e.. 1,2,3,4)
Nacelles • The housing of an externally mounted engine.
Surfaces • General term that applies to the devices that enable the pilot to control the direction of flight and altitude. • Keep hands clear from movable surfaces.
Ailerons • Attached to the trailing edge of the wing. • Controls the roll (banking) motion of the aircraft.
Elevators • Attached to the horizontal stabilizer (fin). • Controls the climb or descent of the aircraft.
Rudder (Vertical Stabilizer) • The upright movable part of the aircraft tail assemble that assists in the directional control of the aircraft.
Flaps • Attached to the trailing edge of the wings to improve aerodynamic performance during takeoff and landing.
Spoilers/Speed Brakes • Moveable aerodynamic devices or plates on aircraft that extend into the airstream to reduce the airspeed of the aircraft by increasing drag. Used during descent and to assist slowing the aircraft.
Landing Gear • Usually of tricycle design, consists of main landing gear strut under each wing or fuselage and one nose landing gear strut. The landing gear is also used for steering and braking.
Aluminum Beryllium Steel Wood Magnesium Titanium Composite Materials Other Materials Aircraft Structural Materials
Aluminum & Aluminum Alloys • Lightweight material used in sheets for skin surfaces, as channels and castings for framework. • Light gray appearance or silver when polished. • Does not withstand heat well, melts at approx.. 1,200 F.
Beryllium • Used on aircraft brakes system. • Resembles magnesium in color. • May produce an irritating or poisonous gas when involved in a fire. • SCBA must be worn when fighting fires involving beryllium.
Steel • Used in aircraft engine parts, around engine nacelles, engine fire walls , and tubing. • Presents no fire hazard, but may contribute to the fire by sparking if friction is created. • Heavy metal but is useful in high heat or tolerance areas.
Wood • Used in older aircraft in structural areas such as wings spars, wing ribs and bulkheads. • Most common use is when combined with tubular steel framing with wooden components.
Combustible Conventional Metal Materials magnesium and titanium are the most common combustible metals used in aircraft.
Magnesium • Strong and lightweight material used in landing gear, wheels, engines mountings brackets, crankcase sections, cover plates, and other engine parts. Generally used in areas where forcible entry will not be required.
Magnesium • The appearance of this metal is silvery-white or grayish in color. • Very hard to ignite but once ignited, it burns intensely and is difficult to extinguish. • Poses as a serious re-ignition source.
Magnesium • The ease of ignition depends primarily on its mass (thickness & shape). Ignition temperature is generally considered to be close to its melting point of 1202 degrees F. • When specialized extinguishing agents are not available, dry sand may be used to cover and smoother the fire.
Titanium • Silver-gray material that is as strong as ordinary steel but is 56% lighter. • Used primarily in engine parts, around engine nacelles, engine fire walls, and turbine blades. Also used to reinforce skin surfaces to protect them from impinging exhaust flame or heat.
Titanium • Its ignition temperature is generally considered to be close to its melting temperature of 3,140 degrees F. • The metal burns with intensity and resist extinguishment much like magnesium.
Composite Materials Carbon/Graphite Boron/Tungsten
Carbon/Graphite Fibers • Provide a superior stiffness, high strength-to-weight ratio, and ease of fabrication. • Used extensively in modern aircraft to replace heavier components.
Carbon/Graphite Fibers • Epoxy fibers will begin to deteriorate or burn at approximately 725 degrees F. A severe contamination hazard is considered likely when the fibers become airborne. • Once free, these small fibers can be transported up to several miles by air currents and can cause damage to unprotected electrical equipment.
Boron/Tungsten • Boron fibers to provide superior stiffness, high strength-to-weight ratio, and ease of fabrication. • Boron fibers can be released if their epoxy binder burns. • They can be extremely sharp and present a hazard during salvage and overhaul operations.
Other Materials • Fine fibers embedded in carbon/epoxy materials. • The fibers are usually made of fiberglass, aramid, Kevlar epoxy, Kevlar graphite or carbon in the form of graphite. • Produce a highly toxic gas when heated, even when no flame is noticeable.
Piston Engine • Single or twin engine aircraft. • Horizontally opposed air cooled engine. • Avgas
Piston Engine • Single or twin engine aircraft. • Radial air cooled engine. • Avgas
Turboprop Engines • Propeller geared to a small turbojet engine. • Used widely in small and medium sized passenger aircraft.
Turboprop Engines • Easily distinguished form piston aircraft. • Cylindrically shaped engine nacelle. • Large exhaust ports.
Turboprop Engines • Some engines produce 80% of thrust at the prop and 20% thrust from the jet exhaust. • Turboprop engines use Jet “A” fuel.
Jet Engines • High power output per engine weight and size. • Used in large and small passenger aircraft.
Jet Engines • Easily distinguishable from other types of engines. • Civil aviation will use Jet “A” fuel.
Single Engine • Most single engine aircraft are: • Piston Engine • Unpressurized • Light Metal