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Coastal Navigation . Jack Dale ISPA Yachtmaster Offshore Instructor CYA Advanced Cruising Instructor . Plotters Dividers Hand Bearing Compass Ship’s Compass TSD Computer Calculator Pencils / Erasers. Binoculars Knotmeter Depth Sounder / Lead Line Watch Barometer GPS VHF Radio.

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coastal navigation

Coastal Navigation

Jack Dale

ISPA Yachtmaster Offshore Instructor

CYA Advanced Cruising Instructor

navigational equipment
Plotters

Dividers

Hand Bearing Compass

Ship’s Compass

TSD Computer

Calculator

Pencils / Erasers

Binoculars

Knotmeter

Depth Sounder / Lead Line

Watch

Barometer

GPS

VHF Radio

Navigational Equipment
plotter
Plotter
  • Portland Plotter
  • Douglas Protractor
  • Parallel Rules
  • Course Arm Plotter
dividers
One handed

Straight

Dividers
  • Used for
    • Measuring distance
    • Determining Latitude and Longitude
hand bearing compass
Hand Bearing Compass
  • Used to take bearings
    • Lines of position
    • Danger bearings
fluxgate compass
Fluxgate Compass
  • Digital compass
  • Sensor
calculator
Time speed distance calculations

Can be used for celestial navigation

Calculator
pencils erasers
O.9 mm pencil

Soft lead

White erasers

Pencils / Erasers
binoculars
7 X 50

May have built-in compass

Binoculars
knotmeter
Measures speed through the water.

Usually includes a trip log

Distance covered

Knotmeter
depth sounder lead line
Depth Sounder / Lead Line
  • Used to measure depths
  • Be aware of offset
  • May not work at extreme depths
barometer
Used to make weather forecasts

Rapidly falling barometer indicates severe weather

Barometer
slide16
Position finding

Speed over ground

Velocity made good

ETA

Horizontal datum should match chart

GPS
vhf radio
VHF Radio
  • Marine weather forecasts
  • Notices to Shipping
  • GMDSS
  • Communication with other vessels, marinas
navigational publications
Notices to Mariners

Chart 1 - Symbols and Abbreviations

Catalogue of Nautical Charts and Related Publications

Sailing Directions

Current Atlas

Canadian Aids to Navigation System

Tide and Current Tables

List of Lights, Buoys and Fog Signals

Radio Aids to Marine Navigation

Navigational Publications
other publications
Other Publications
  • International Regulations for the Prevention of Collisions at Sea (ColRegs)
  • Safe Boating Guide
charts
Charts
  • a graphic representation of a maritime area and adjacent coastal regions.
chart information
Chart Information
  • Charts show
    • depths of water and heights of land,
    • natural features of the seabed,
    • details of the coastline,
    • navigational hazards,
    • locations of natural and man-made aids to navigation,
    • information on tides and currents,
    • local details of the Earth'smagnetic field,
    • man-made structures such as harbours and bridges
chart classification
Chart Classification
  • Sailing Charts
    • Offshore passages
    • 1:600,000
    • Very little detail
  • General Charts
    • Making landfalls
    • 1:150,000 to 1:600,000
chart classification23
Chart Classification
  • Coastal Charts
    • Inshore navigation
    • 1:50,000 to 1:150,000
  • Harbour Charts
    • Navigating harbours and waterways
    • Larger than 1:50,000
  • Large scale = lots of detail
care of charts
Care of Charts
  • Use soft pencils only
  • Use white erasers only
  • Level, flat surface
  • Keep them updated
  • Keep them dry
    • Use below decks
  • Stow flat / folded
reading charts
Reading Charts
  • Title Block
  • Chart Symbols and Abbreviations
title block
Title Block
  • Region Identification
  • Main Title
  • Scale Identification
  • Projection Identification
title block27
Title Block
  • Depths Notes
  • Elevation Notes
  • Horizontal Datum
  • Source Classification
  • Symbol Reference Notes (Chart 1)
title block28
Title Block
  • Tides and Current Notes
  • Aids to Navigation Notes
  • Cautionary Notes
  • Conversion Table
    • Metres, Feet, Fathoms
compass rose
Compass Rose
  • Variation
  • May be as many as four per chart
  • May vary
  • Use the closest one
transferring charts
Transferring Charts
  • Determine position
  • Determine range and bearing to object on both charts
  • Verify with latitude and longitude
coordinates
Coordinates
  • Latitude (L)
    • Parallels run east and west
    • Denote location north or south of the Equator
    • Poles are 90º North and 90º South
  • Longitude (λ)
    • Meridians run north and south
    • Denote location east or west of Prime Meriden
      • Greenwich
    • Converge at poles
g raticule
Graticule
  • This latitude/longitude "webbing" is known as the common graticule.
  • Location can be specified by both latitude and longitude.
deception pass
Deception Pass

L 48 24.4’N

122 40.2W

degrees minutes seconds
Degrees Minutes Seconds
  • 360 degrees in a circle
    • Symbol º
  • 60 minutes in a degree
    • Symbol '
  • 60 seconds in a minute
    • Symbol "
formats
Formats
  • Latitude – Longitude
    • DM Degree:Minute
      • L 49º 30.0’ N λ123º 30.0’W
    • DMS Degree:Minute:Second
      • L49 º 30’ 00”N λ123º 30’ 00”W
    • DD Decimal Degree
      • L49.5000ºN λ123.5000ºW
      • generally with 4 decimal numbers.
chart projections
Chart Projections
  • Mercator
    • “Normal” projection for charts
  • Polyconic
    • May be used in the Great Lakes
the ships compass and north
The Ships Compass and North
  • Cardinal Points
    • North
    • East
    • South
    • West
  • North is usually at the top
north
North
  • True North
    • No variation or deviation
  • Magnetic North
    • Accounts for variation only
  • Compass North
    • Accounts for variation and deviation
variation
Variation
  • Difference between true north and magnetic north
  • North pole and magnetic pole differ
  • Annual change
  • Found on compass rose
  • Varies globally
compass rose50
Compass Rose
  • 004 1/2°W 1985 (8' E)
  • 4.5º West variation in 1985
  • 8’ annual change
  • Current variation 3ºW
    • 8 X 19/60 = 1.424º change
    • 4.5 – 1.5 = 3
    • Subtract when annual change and variation directions differ
    • Add when same
deviation
Deviation
  • Difference between ship’s compass and magnetic bearing
  • Ferrous metal affects magnetic field on vessel
  • Relative to vessel’s heading
  • Found on deviation card / table
  • No deviation in hand bearing compass
deviation card
Deviation Card
  • Created by
    • Compass compensator
    • Self
  • Checked using ranges or transit
accounting for variation and deviation
Accounting for Variation and Deviation
  • Helm reads the ship’s compass
  • Navigator works in true
  • Navigator makes conversions
    • Correcting
      • Compass to True
    • Uncorrecting
      • True to Compass
compass to true conversions
Correcting Memory Aid

Can

Dead

Men

Vote

Twice

At

Elections

Correcting

Compass heading

+/- Deviation

= Magnetic heading

+/- Variation

= True heading

Add

East

Compass to True Conversions
converting true to compass
Uncorrecting Memory Aid

True

Virgins

Make

Dull

Company

At

Weddings

Uncorrecting

True heading

+/- Variation

= Magnetic heading

+/- Deviation

=Compass heading

Add

West

Converting True to Compass
time speed distance
Time, Speed, Distance
  • Distance
    • Measured in nautical miles
    • One mile equals 1 minutes of latitude
      • 1.15 statute miles (6080 feet)
      • 1.85 kilometers
  • Speed
    • Measured in knots (nautical miles per hour)
  • Time
    • Measured in minutes
the formula
The formula
  • 60D = ST
  • Distance times 60 equals speed times time
  • D=(ST)/60
  • S=60D/T
  • T=60D/S
guidelines
Speed

1 knot

2 knots

3 knots

4 knots

5 knots

6 knots

Time to travel 1 mile

60 minutes

30 minutes

20 minutes

15 minutes

12 minutes

10 minutes

Guidelines
examples
Examples
  • You have been on route for 4 hours and 20 minutes at a speed of 6 knots. How far have you travelled?
  • You need to get to Porlier Pass (20 miles away) by 1500. At what time should you depart, if your speed 6 knots?
  • You leave Sidney for Ganges, a distance of 15 miles. You arrive 4 hours later. What was your speed?
answers
Answers
  • D=ST / 60

6 X 240 /60 = 26 miles

  • T=60D /S

60 X 20 / 6 = 200 minutes (3h 20m)

Depart at 1140

  • S=60D / T

S=60D / T

60 X 5 / 240 = 3.75 knots

deck log

Course (add east)

TIME

POSITION

C

D

M

V

T

S

SET

DFT

CMG

SMG

D

REMARKS

Deck Log