An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology- Chapter 1. A. All living things perform the same basic functions. 1. Responsiveness- Organisms respond to changes in their immediate environment, this is called irritability.
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1. Responsiveness- Organisms respond to changes in their immediate environment, this is called irritability.
2. Growth- Organisms grow larger, increasing in size through an increase in the size or number of their cells.
4. Movement- Organisms are capable of movement of food, blood or other materials inside the body, also moving in the environment.
1. Anatomy is the study of internal and external structure and the physical relationships between both parts.
2. Physiology is the study of how living organisms perform their vital functions.
1. Anatomy can be divided into microscopic or macroscopic (gross) anatomy.
2. Microscopic anatomy deals with structures that cannot be seen without magnification.
a. Cytology- analyzes the internal structure of individual cells.
b. Histology- examines tissues and organs.
a. Surface anatomy- refers to the study of general form and superficial markings.
b. Regional anatomy – considers all of the superficial and internal features in a specific region of the body; such as head, neck or trunk.
c. Systemic anatomy considers the structures of major organ systems; example- circulatory system.
1. Physiology examines the function of anatomical structures; it considers the physical and chemical processes responsible.
a. Human physiology is the study of the functions of the human body.
c. Special physiology is the study of the physiology of specific organs.
e. Pathology studies the effects of disease on organ or system functions.
A. Chemical or Molecular level- Atoms
1. Cellular – red blood cell
2. Tissue- arter
3. Organ- heart
4. Organ system- circulatory system
5. Organism level – human
6. Each level of organization depends on the others.
1. See figure 1-2
1. Homeostasis (homeo= unchanging; stasis= standing) keeping a stable environment. (Example body temp)
2. Homeostatic regulation refers to the adjustments that are met to keep homeostasis. (Example when to hot body will seat to cool down.)
a. Receptor- that is sensitive to a particular environmental change or stimulus.
b. A control center, or integration center, which receives and processes the information from the receptor.
c. An effector- responds to the commands of the control center and whose activity opposes or enhances the stimulus.
1. The method of homeostatic regulation is called negative feedback because the effector that is activated by the control center opposes or eliminates the stimulus.
2. Most homeostatic mechanisms in the body involve negative feedback. See figure 1.3
1. In positive feedback the initial stimulus produces a response that reinforces the stimulus. See figure 1.4
1. When homeostatic regulation fails, organ systems begin to malfunction and the individual experiences the symptoms of illness or disease.
A. Surface Anatomy
1. Standard anatomical illustrations are in anatomical position, with the hands at the sides and the palms facing up.
3. A person facing up is said to be prone.
1. Know figure 1.5, 4.6 and 1.7.
1. Any slice through a three-dimensional object can be described with reference to three sectional planes.
1. Two body cavities form during embryonic development- the dorsal body and ventral body cavity.