STEPS TO CIVILIZATIONUnit 3 Social Studies 7 Use your flip booklet to record notes!
Look Around You! How did the world you see come to be the way it is?
Why are you watching this PowerPoint instead of waiting outside a gopher’s hole, with a spiked club in your hands?
The reason we are…. Lies far in the past when early humans began creating tools to help them make useful and beautiful objects
They left their caves for the comfort of houses built from reeds, peat, leather, wood and stone
They built walls around their settlements and began to live peacefully in settled communities
These early changes were the first stepstowards civilizationand the first steps towards the life we know
In this unit, you will examine: • important changes in lives of early humans • changes that affected lives of all people who followed them, including you!
Early Beginnings • Archaeologists found evidence showing at least 6 different species of humans having walked the earth • These include first modern humans, the early Homo sapiens sapiens • Evidence of Early Humans mapped on pg.44 Ancient Worlds text
Label Your Flip BookletCAPITALSPRINT NEATLYCENTER Top Title Page: • Steps to Civilization, Name Bottom Edges of Each Page: • Tools Were Important • Tools Teach Us • Eras • 6 Groups of Early Humans • Early Hunters • Cro-Magnon Hunters • Farming: A Giant Step • How Farming Got Started • Cities: Another Giant Step • Bottom Edge – leave blank
Try This Mapping Activity • Pg.44 AW - find title, legend, scale of map • What information does each of these items give you? • Describe where remains of of ancient humans were located in relation to major rivers. What pattern do you notice?
Think for Yourself p.45 • Imagine yourself shipwrecked on a deserted island. Your mission is to survive on your wits alone. Your first task is to find food and water. You gather shellfish from the beach and find a stream. What now? Group Activity
Development of Humans • Earthlikedeserted island for early humans • Offered materials of nature, nothing else • People survivedfinding ways to use materials to meet needs for food, shelter clothing
Tools Were Important • Made axes, knives, scrapers and spearheads using hard stone to chip pieces from another stone • Various groupsof humanscreated different tools depending on environment
Howancientpeopleshunted Whatthey hunted (large or small prey) Tools Teach Us: • What each group’s life was like
Tools Teach Us: • How they cooked their food • If they storedtheirfood
Eras • Scientists divided timeearly humans lived into three eras (periods of time) • Eras were based on the materials in tools • Stone Age • Bronze Age • Iron Age
Scientific Evidence for6 Groups of Early Humans • According to Theory of Evolution each species of humans developed into the next group • Some groups lived on Earth at the same time • Scientists do not all agree on names / dates for each group • Support differences by analyzing fossil remains • Notice how each species used technologyto help them survive in their environment
Early Humans • Australopithecus • Homo habilis (handyman) • Homo erectus (upright man) • Homo sapiens (Neanderthal) • Homo sapiens (Cro-Magnon) • Homo sapiens sapiens (modern human) STOP. REFLECT. COMPLETE FILL-IN-BLANK REVIEW
Teams • Australopithecus – Team 5 • Homo habilis (handyman) – Team 1 + Devlyn • Homo erectus (upright man) – Team 4 • Homo sapiens (Neanderthal) - Team 2 • Homo sapiens (Cro-Magnon) – Team 6 • Homo sapiens sapiens (modern human) – Team 3
Try This Timeline Activity • Using criteria on Steps to Civilization Handout AW pages 47-49, construct a timeline in chart format • Your chart may be produced with a computer or by hand on 11 X 17 paper • Your goal is to show changes that took place from Australopithecus to Homo sapiens sapiens. List the changes on your time line • Use the Mr. Donn site for information too! Together, let’s review criteria for an excellent timeline
Go Deeper with Technology http://earlyhumans.mrdonn.org/index.html
Early Hunters • In ancient times, people could not be certain of getting dinner if they stayed in one place • People atewild plants when they were in season • Wild animals were eaten when killed with tools of wood and stone. • Early hunters followed migrating herds of animals, or travelled to places where they had found food in past years. • Hunting was a way of life for early humans. Evidence found at may sites suggests that early humans (starting with Homo erectus) were skillful hunters
Pause & Discuss • What are the advantages and disadvantages of the hunter-gatherer lifestyles?
North American Aboriginal people stampeded herds of bison off cliffs such as the one at Head-Smashed-in-Buffalo-Jump, Alberta.
Why do you think this hunting method encouraged people to live in communities?
Cro-Magnon Hunters • Followed great herds of animals that once travelled across Europe • Some lived in caves • Others made tents out of skins of animals they caught • Could pack up tents easily and bring them as they followed herds of animals • Tools were much more efficient than those of earlier people
Cro-MagnonHunters • Invented blade tools and madetools from boneto help make clothing and shelters • used wood, bone, and plant fibres to make tools • Most of these materials rotted, leaving little or no evidence • Only stone tools survived
Cro-Magnon Hunters • Invention of barbed harpoon important to growth of population • Hunting became more efficient as hunting tools improved
Put Yourself into the Time and Place of a Historical Event • Imagine you are one of a band of early humans who travel together in search of food • Work in a group to develop a short skit about your discovery of fire. • See criteria on assignment card on next slide
Assignment Card • You eat roots, fruit, and berries whenver you find them. • You eat raw meat because you do not kow about fire. • You break animal bones open so you can eat the marrow. • Then one day you see fire for the first time. • How does the fire start? How does it change your life? What can you do now that you could not do before?
Farming: A Giant Step • most of time humans fed themselves gathering wild plants / hunting wild animals • by 5000 years ago, people had begun farming in almost every part of world
Farming marks time when people began to grow plants and raise animals for food • Humans began training animals to be of use to them
Switch to farming marks a gigantic change in how people related to the earth and their environment • Instead of simply finding and taking what nature provided, people started to help nature along • As farmers, humans started to take control of the production of food
A Shift • Shift from food gathering to food producing meant people could now be sure of getting enough to eat • Dependable source of food allowed people to settle in one place • As food became abundant, communities began to flourish • Farming was a giant step towards the development of civilization
How Farming Got Started We can only speculate. We weren’t there. Some Theories: • Spilled-Grain Hypothesis • Watching-the-Animals Hypothesis • Moov’en-and-Groov’en Hypothesis
Spilled-Grain Hypothesis Neolithic women, noticed new grain plants grew when they accidentally spilled grain seeds. They tried scattering seeds on purpose – it worked!
Watching-the-Animals Hypothesis • Animals often find plants in places with water / good soil - Hunters saw pattern • People stayed at sites, animals became tamer • People started weeding / irrigating so plants would grow better • Started saving seeds of better plants to plant
Moov’en-and-Groov’en Hypothesis • One season, nomads liked a site so much they stuck around • Stayed so long they harvested a crop and then saw it grow to harvest stage again • Groups learned to grow a crop from seed to harvest and then move on
Remember A hypothesis is a theory or opinion that has not been proven – a kind of educated guess about what the evidence means
Activity: On your own, explain why you agree with one of the hypotheses described or propose one of your own. Write down two facts or reasons to justify your hypothesis • Spilled-Grain Hypothesis • Watching-the-Animals Hypothesis • Moov’en-and-Groov’en Hypothesis
PAIR/SHARE ACTIVITY “Why Farming Began” • Using Ancient Worlds pages 56-57, meet with a partner to discuss how the historian argued a hypothesis in the article “Why Farming Began”. Use the questions in the article to guide your discussion. Take turns reading the questions, and responding.
Think for Yourself • State your own hypothesis about how farming started. • How is your hypothesis similar to and different from the one given in the article? • Do you think the historian did a good job of supporting a hypothesis? Explain.
Cities: Another Giant Step Looking at how cities developed is like seeing civilization develop • development of farming brought people together in communities • people stopped farming when farmlands produced more food than was needed some • some people developed others skill; moved closer together forming villages • sometimes these villages grew into towns, and then cities
Ancient Cities of the World • In ancient times, cities homes of royalty and officials who held power • Officials controlled surrounding land; decided who could farm • Somecitiesgrewaroundtemple or place of worship • Communities flourished because people could make a living (e.g, shopkeepers, craftspeople, artists, teachers, priests, and officials)
Scientists want to know more about how ancient people lived and met individual/common needs
Seeing Patterns Note the development (changes) of different early civilizations Nomadic groups travelling People formed settled, organized communities Communities grew into cities Met other groups through trade or warfare Cities developed unique characteristics; solve problems in different ways