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Building & Infrastructure. Martyn Hulme. Deputy Chair of the AGMA Environment Commission & Managing Director of Co-operative Estates. Adapting the city. Buildings and infrastructure workshop EcoCities research summary. Jeremy Carter.

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Building & Infrastructure

Martyn Hulme

Deputy Chair of the AGMA Environment Commission & Managing Director of Co-operative Estates

Buildings and infrastructure workshop

EcoCities research summary

Jeremy Carter

Research Fellow, University of Manchester, School of Environment & Development

Susceptibility of gm infrastructure to flood risk
Susceptibility of GM infrastructure to flood risk

  • 7% of hazardous substance instillations in flood zone 3

  • 6% of motorway junctions in flood zone 3

  • 5% of fire stations in flood zone 3

  • 2.4% educational establishments in flood zone 3

The ecocities spatial portal
The EcoCities Spatial Portal

Mapping flood zones 2 and 3, and educational establishments.

Mapping the urban heat island and residential care homes.

Human comfort in office buildings
Human comfort in office buildings

  • Productivity and health of workers are associated with thermal comfort in offices

  • Level of control over temperature and ventilation in offices is crucial for employees’ comfort, health and productivity.

  • Landlord regarded as responsible for physical building changes, tenants for adjusting behaviour.

  • Behavioural adaptation measures affected by common reliance on air conditioning and the variability of tenant companies.

This study used Arup Appraise data

Urban green blue infrastructure
Urban green/blue infrastructure

Artificial wetland

  • Benefits of green infrastructure

  • Reduced surface runoff

  • Moderating air temperatures

  • Improving air quality

  • Protecting and enhancing biodiversity

  • Providing recreation space

  • Reducing carbon emissions

Green roof

Flood detention basin

Oxford road green infrastructure scenarios
Oxford Road: green infrastructure scenarios

Business as usual

15% green space

High development

4% green space

High development

= +5ºC

Business as usual

Deep green

34% green space

Deep green

= -6ºC

~21% green space will maintain surface temperatures at baseline

Greater manchester future land use scenarios
Greater Manchester – future land use scenarios

Long descent scenario 2050

Upward Spiral scenario 2050


  • Weather/climate risks to buildings and infrastructure are evolving

  • Today’s developments will be operating in a different climate regime in the future

  • New developments need to be resilient to future climate change

  • Adaptation needs to mix physical and behavioural responses

  • Green and blue infrastructure is a valuable adaptation response

  • Climate change projections should ideally be considered alongside socio-economic projections.


  • Many thanks to Bruntwood and the Oglesby Charitable Trust for their generous support of the EcoCities programme.

  • The research support and assistance of the EcoCities team in developing the content for this presentation is much appreciated. Particular thanks go to:

    • Gina Cavan

    • Angela Connelly

    • John Handley

    • Simon Guy

    • Aleksandra Kazmierczak

Principal sources of data
Principal sources of data

  • Carter, J. G. and Lawson, N. (2011). Looking back and projecting forwards: Greater Manchester’s weather and climate. EcoCities, The University of Manchester.

  • Carter, J. G. (2012). Land use change scenarios for Greater Manchester: analysis and implications for climate change adaptation. EcoCities project, University of Manchester.

  • Cavan, G. and Kazmierczak, A. (2011). Urban greening to adapt urban areas to climate change: Oxford Road Corridor case study. EcoCities, The University of Manchester.

  • Kazmierczak, A., and Kenny, C. (2011). Risk of flooding to infrastructure in Greater Manchester. EcoCities, The University of Manchester.

  • Kazmierczak, A. and Connelly, A. (2012). Adaptation to weather and climate in office buildings in Manchester. EcoCities, The University of Manchester.

Building & Infrastructure

Mike Kay

Network Strategic Director, Electricity North West

Building & Infrastructure

Mike Kay

Network Strategic Director, Electricity North West

The challenge for the wires
The challenge for the wires

  • Decarbonization of generation, of space heating, and of transport

  • Managing more extreme weather – flooding and wind storms

  • Increase in average temperatures

Electricity north west
Electricity North West

  • We serve only the North West of England and we are based here

  • We serve approximately 5 million people at 2.4 million domestic and industrial locations

  • £9bn of Network Assets58,000km of cable96 bulk supply substations363 primary substations34,000 transforming points


  • A doubling of electricity usage by 2050?

  • Smart grids; smart meters – smart cities

  • Electric Vehicles

  • Innovation – Capacity to Customers (C2C) to reduce the new build capacity needed; make it available quickly and without digging up the streets

The weather
The weather

  • Electricity North West is defending its critical infrastructure

  • Significant investment in flood defences

Ambient temperature
Ambient temperature

  • Any rise in temperature is bad for electricity networks

  • Load growth is a much bigger effect, and ambient temperature rise will be accommodated in our changes overall

Water infrastructure climate change chris matthews head of sustainability united utilities

Water Infrastructure & Climate ChangeChris Matthews Head of Sustainability, United Utilities

Presentation overview
Presentation Overview

  • About United Utilities

  • What climate change means for water and wastewater service provision and why this is a business imperative

  • Our response – water supply

  • Our response – wastewater service

  • Engaging with stakeholders – how we all need to work together

About united utilities
About United Utilities

  • Operations in the north west of England

  • 7 million customers

  • 57,000 hectares of catchment land

  • Over 40,000 km of distribution mains, supplying 1950Ml/day water

  • Over 72,000km of sewers, 582 Wastewater Treatment Works

Adaptation and water supply
Adaptation and water supply

  • 2035 estimate is a reduction in available supply of some 10% or around 180 million litres of water every day

    • A combination of less yield and greater customer demand

  • Intense rainfall may increase raw water colour increasing treatment costs

  • Flooding on water treatment facilities, interruption to service

Adaptation and wastewater service provision
Adaptation and wastewater service provision

  • Increased incidences of flooding of homes

  • Flooding on wastewater treatment facilities, interruption to service

  • Water courses could have a lower dissolved oxygen content leading to tighter discharge consent standards to maintain water quality standards

  • Potential for odour generation in warmer conditions and risk of causing nuisance to customers

  • Impact on sludge as prolonged wet periods may restrict sludge to land recycling route

  • Warmer weather may have a positive effect on biological treatment processes, which operate more effectively at higher temperatures

Our response the process
Our response – the process

  • Adaptation integrated into our Strategic Direction Statement, company policies and strategies to develop optimised long-term asset management plans for the next 25 years. The plans provide the foundation for assessing the specific actions required to adapt to climate change risks over the planning horizon and beyond.

  • Climate change data (UKCIP) and assessment of risk is used in the development of company strategies, whilst climate change is accounted for in design, construction and operational activities.

Our response water supply
Our response – water supply

  • Water Resources Management Plan

  • Reduce demand for water (leakage control and customer efficiency)

  • Increase supply of water (small scale new groundwater resource development and greater network integration)

  • 55 km West-East pipeline to link Lake District and Welsh sources and enable water to be moved to those areas most affected by climate change especially during drought period

  • £1.6m investment to manage flood risk at key assets and catchment land investment

  • All in a way that is good value for customers and is sustainable

Our response wastewater service
Our response – wastewater service

  • Increased volumes of storm water exceed sewer capacity and cause customer flooding.

    • Upsizing priority sections of sewer together with protecting customers’ property

    • Improving models of the sewer network

    • Engaging with local authorities and the EA on development of Surface Water Management Plans

    • On-going planning to protect wastewater treatment works at risk from flooding

    • Increasing emphasis on demand management approaches

    • Sustainable drainage systems (SUDS) analysis

  • Building our way out of the problem on its own will not work and we already have a policy NOT to routinely upsize the sewer network

  • Working with our customers to determine the level of service/protection that they want/can pay for

Engaging with stakeholders
Engaging with stakeholders

  • Engagement to understand stakeholder priorities and preferences

    • Taken into account within our strategic asset planning process.

  • Flooding from the sewerage system a symptom of more widespread problems in an entire drainage system which will often require actions from other stakeholders as well as United Utilities.

  • Support the adoption of a joined-up approach to drainage management based on the principles of integrated drainage as outlined in Making Space for Water (Defra, 2005), Future Water (Defra, 2008), the Pitt Review (Sir Michael Pitt, 2008) and Flood and Water Management Act (2010).

Key messages
Key messages

  • Sustainable adaptation to climate change will involve partnership working and behavioural change. We expect the proportion of this type of work to increase as conventional solutions become unsustainable.

  • Climate change risks to our Water Service are well catered for in our existing business plans and statutory documents. We already plan for climate variability in our 25 year business planning horizon.

  • There are some long-term risks to our Wastewater Service from climate change. Current methods to manage these risks are unsustainable and innovation is needed to manage the issues in the long term.

Building & Infrastructure

David Hytch

Information Systems Director, Transport for Greater Manchester

Transport and climate change
Transport and Climate Change

  • Transport in GM is responsible for 4m tons of CO2

  • We recognise the problem

  • Now to do something about it

    • Adapting

    • Mitigating

    • Business Continuity

Transport adapting
Transport Adapting

  • Energy

  • Green Sourced

  • Managed

  • Re-useable

  • Design & Build

  • Educate


  • Materials

Transport mitigation
Transport Mitigation

  • New and existing infrastructure

  • Metrolink

    • 5 million fewer car journeys

  • Cycling

  • Walking

  • Roads

    • Bus

    • Freight

    • Cars

  • Rail

  • Travel Planning

  • Smart Ticketing

  • Park & Ride

Transport approach
Transport Approach

  • Change Behaviour

  • Deliver best in class

  • Carbon footprint emissions

Transport and climate change1
Transport and Climate Change

  • Bus

  • Hybrid Bus

  • Cross City Bus

  • Oxford Road Corridor

  • LSM busway

  • Route

  • Northern Hub

  • HS2 – not speed but capacity local & regional

Transport and climate mitigation
Transport and Climate Mitigation

  • Road

  • Predictive Traffic Management

  • Measurement Freight & Bus

  • IncidentManagement

  • Adaptive signal control

  • Evidence:

    • Eco driving 15%

    • Adaptive cruise control 3-10%

    • Satnav improvements 15%

    • Speed management 20%

    • Adaptive signalling 20%

Transport interventions
Transport interventions

  • Bus

    • Hybrid Bus

    • Cross city Bus including Oxford Road Corridor

    • LSM Busway

  • Rail

    • Northern Hub

    • Electrification

    • HS2 – not speed but capacity

Transport interventions1
Transport Interventions

  • The Informed Traveller

    • Smart ticketing

    • Mobile Apps

    • Trip Planners at home and on the move

    • In journey updates

  • Real time is too late

Thank you

Building & Infrastructure

Iain Grant

Buildings Management Director, Bruntwood

Building Retrofit

The key issues
The Key Issues

  • For property owners; the preservation of asset value and ensuring that buildings are fit for purpose;

  • For occupiers; ensuring that staff productivity is not impaired and where possible enhanced

  • How do we measure our success

  • Adaptation is a here and now issue

The importance of time aka the commercial imperative
The Importance of Time (aka The Commercial Imperative)

  • Includes the differences between

  • Strategy and tangible implementation

  • Short term mitigation and long term adaptation

  • Time horizon over which our investment plans are predicated

Building retrofit the key challenges
Building Retrofit – the key challenges ?

  • From 37% of UK emissions in 2009 to zero by 2050; principally from the existing building stock

  • Heritage buildings

  • How do we choose which buildings to adapt and what happens to those that we reject ?

  • Funding

Vrf market
VRF Market

Market Volumes

Installed VRF in Use

Kw Cooling Capacity

Vrf market1
VRF Market

  • Growth of Heat Recovery systems

Cooling only

  • Why?

  • Flexibility

  • Efficiency

  • Cost

Heat Pump




Heat Recovery





How do we fund
How do we fund ?

  • Has to be sustainable

  • Stand alone adaptation doesn’t work financially, build in to current investment plans

  • Inclusive rents may be the solution (Green Deal et al)

  • Ultimately a move away from P & L funded costs to balance sheet investment

The opportunities
The Opportunities

  • GM wide strategy

  • We have a GM wide Governance Structure

  • Technology exists today

  • Large number of organisations keen to become involved, but haven't yet built an effective coalition for change

Building & Infrastructure

John Lorimer

Capital Programme Director, Manchester City Council

Public Sector Building

Retrofit Case Study


Bad Housekeeping


Building & Infrastructure

Dr Tim Whitley

Associate Director, Arup

Sustainable building retrofit adaptation and mitigation

Sustainable Building RetrofitAdaptation and Mitigation

Climate change impacts
Climate Change Impacts

  • Lack of resilience

  • High energy bills

  • Summer overheating

  • Customer discomfort




Adaptation vs mitigation and retrofit
Adaptation vs Mitigation and Retrofit

  • MitigationAdaptation

    • Reduce energy use Increased summer temperatures

    • Reduce water use Increased flood risk

    • Lower carbon footprint More extreme weather events

  • Challenge

    • Potential increased cooling to cope with increased summer temperatures vs reducing energy use

Bruntwood adaptation and mitigation
Bruntwood– Adaptation and Mitigation

  • Three packages

  • Behavioural

  • Fabric

  • Services

  • Two categories

  • Suite related (impact on customers’ electricity bills)

  • Building related (impact on service charge energy costs)

Key intervention examples
Key Intervention examples

  • Envelope and environmental system strategy

    • High performance glazing

    • Solar shading through glazing and blinds

    • Insulation to roof and spandrel panels

    • Expose soffits for passive/night time cooling

    • Install high efficiency ventilation and conditioning systems

    • Maximise daylight opportunities

Fa ade mitigation and adaptation

BCO Guide




Continuous glazing


Clear double glazing + internal blind







Blind in

ventilated cavity








High performance 66/34 glazing + internal blind


Façade Mitigation and Adaptation

Cooling Loads












Total Cooling W/m2 (perimeter areas)

Key intervention examples1
Key Intervention examples

  • Control & monitoring systems

    • Enhanced BMS, increased controls, smaller zones

    • Lighting control zones, low energy lighting

    • Extensive sub-metering and real time displays

  • Comprehensive behaviour change strategy

  • Prompt energy conscious behaviour change

Building & Infrastructure

Martyn Hulme

Deputy Chair of the AGMA Environment Commission & Managing Director of Co-operative Estates