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Lecture 1: Introduction Piotr Bilski. Computer Architecture. Plan of the Lectures. Introduction, history of the computers, Moore's Law Structure of the computer system. System bus. Orders' cycle Logical systems. Computer's arithmetics Processor's instruction list

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Lecture 1 introduction piotr bilski

Lecture 1: Introduction

Piotr Bilski

Computer Architecture

Plan of the lectures
Plan of the Lectures

  • Introduction, history of the computers, Moore's Law

  • Structure of the computer system. System bus. Orders' cycle

  • Logical systems. Computer's arithmetics

  • Processor's instruction list

  • Structure and work regime of the processor

  • Control Unit

  • Cache memory

  • Internal and external memory

  • Input/output devices

  • Operating system support

  • RISC processors

  • Superscalar processors

  • Parallel architectures

  • IA-64 architecture

Points and g rades
Points and Grades

Two tests during the semester: 50 points MAX

Two programming projects: 50 points MAX

26 pts – grade 3

31 pts – grade 3,5

36 pts – grade 4

41 pts – grade 4,5

46 pts – grade 5


W. Stallings, “Computer Organization and Architecture. Designing and Performance. 7th Edition”, Prentice Hall, 2006.

A.J. van de Goor, “High Performance Computer Architecture,” Prentice-Hall, 1989.

B. Wilkinson, Computer architecture (2nd ed.); Prentice-Hall 1996.

Hennessy, J.L. Patterson, Computer architecture – a quantitative approach (3nd ed.); Morgan Kaufman 2005.

J. Silc, B. Robin, T. Ungerer, Processors architecture: from dataflow to superscalar and beyond; Springer-Verlag 1999.

Organization and a rchitecture of the c omputer s ystem
Organization and Architecture of the Computer System

  • Organization determines operational units and connections between them, which realize architecture

  • Architecture describes attributes (characteristics) of the computer system, visible (accessible) for the programmer

Definition of the c omputer
Definition of the Computer

  • Computer is, in general meaning, computing machine, used for processing of the information represented in the digital form or as the continuous signal

  • What is the difference between the calculator and the computer?

Classification of the c omputers
Classification of the Computers

Method of the data processing

Size of the instruction set


Serial (scalar)








Breadth of the address bus







Functional s cheme of the c omputer
Functional Scheme of the Computer


Data processing with transmission

Data transmission

Transfer data module

Internal processing of data

Data storage

Data processing module

Data storing module

Control module

Phases of the c omputer d evelopment
Phases of the Computer Development

  • Computers based on the vacuum lamps (1946-1957)

  • Transistor-based computers (1958-1964)

  • SSI, MSI structure-based computers (1965-1971)

  • LSI structure-based computers (1972-1977)

  • VLSI structure-based computers (1978-??)

  • New architectures: molecular, quantum, optical, neurocomputers

Phases of the pr ocessor d evelopment intel
Phases of the Processor Development (Intel)

  • 8-bit processors (8086-80188)

  • 16-bit processors (80286)

  • First 32-bit processors (80386)

  • 486 family (80486)

  • Pentium family (80586)

  • Pentium Pro family (80686)

  • Pentium IV family

  • 64-bit processors (Pentium IV Extreme)

  • Multicore processors (Dual Core, Core2Duo, Core2Quad, X2, X4, i7)

Pentium and powerpc
Pentium and PowerPC

  • Pentium:

    • Manufactured by Intel

    • Classical superscalar representative of the x86 architecture

    • Pentium, Pentium II, Pentium Pro, Pentium IV, IA-64 (64-bit!)

  • PowerPC:

    • Manufactured by IBM-Apple-Motorola

    • The best RISC processor

    • Models: 601, 603, 604, 620, G3, G4

    • Currently installed in the network devices, printers (Kyocera) and consoles (PS3, Nintendo Wii)

Eniac j p eckert j w maulchy 1946
ENIAC (J.P. Eckert, J.W. Maulchy - 1946)

  • Considered (erroneously) as the first computer in the world

  • Calculations in the decimal system (no memory)

  • Weight – 30 tons, 20 thousand of the vacuum lamps inside, 5000 op/s, power required: 140 kW

  • Applications: calculations for the military (missiles ballistics, viability to construct the hydrogen bomb)

Commercial c omputers since 1951
Commercial Computers (since 1951)

701, 702 (IBM)

UNIVAC I (Sperry-Rand Corporation)


Central Processing Unit (CPU) based on the vacuum lamps

Operational memory based on the ferrite rings or electrostatic lamps

The f irst m icroprocessor 1971
The First Microprocessor (1971)

  • Developed in the Intel company, labelled as 4004 (author: Ted Hoff)

  • Built from 2300 transistors

  • Impemented operation of adding two 4-bit numbers

  • 100 kHz clock

The first general purpose processor 1974
The First General Purpose Processor (1974)

  • Signature: 8080

  • 8-bit processor

  • Clock speed: 2 MHz

  • 6000 of transistors in the circuit

  • 64 kB of addressable memory

Apple ii computer 1977
Apple II Computer (1977)

  • The first one to present the colour graphics

  • Open architecture (easy to expand)

  • MOS 6502 processor (1MHz to 3 MHz)

  • RAM memory 4KB, max. 64 KB

  • WOZ Integer Basic operating system

Ibm pc xt computer 1983
IBM PC/XT Computer (1983)

  • Intel 8088 processor (4,77 MHz), later (in the turbo mode) to 14 MHz

  • RAM memory – max. 640 kB

  • 8-bit ISA bus

  • Later replaced by IBM PC/AT and IBM PC/XT/286

Moore s l aw 1965
Moore’s Law (1965)

Gordon Moore (born in 1929, San Francisco, California), PhD in physics in 1954 r. One of the founders of the Intel corporation in 1968 r.

„Economically optimal number of the transistors in the integrated chip will be doubled every 18 months”

„Computational power of the microprocessors will be doubled every 18 months, assuming constant production cost”

Moore s l aw cont
Moore's Law (cont.)

  • Original drawing from Moore's paper (1965)

Moore s l aw cont1
Moore’s Law (cont.)

„If the car technology in 1971 was accelerating in the same pace as microelectronics, today we would travel from San Francisco to New York within 13 seconds”

Increase of the i ntegration s cale in t ime
Increase of the Integration Scale in Time

Performance gap
Performance Gap

  • Efficiency advancement of processors and memory was not uniform

  • Frequencies of the processor clock are much greater than these of memory

  • Numerous methods of compensating for this gap are applied:

    • Increasing of the memory clock

    • Increasing of the cache memory size

    • Modifying the sequence of the instructions execution flow

Problem of the physical limitations
Problem of the physical limitations

  • Size of transistors cannot be decreased indefinitely!

  • A significant problem is the heat emission (cooling issue!)

  • Processor core has a crucial influence on the calculations efficiency and emitted heat

Comparison of single and multicore architectures
Comparison of Single- and Multicore Architectures

Single core Multiprocessor Multicore





Turing m achine 1937
Turing Machine (1937)

  • The first theoretical model of the computer

  • Was used to design the Colossus computer

  • Symbols are read from the tape, result of the calculations is also stored on the tape










Head control

Work r egime of the turing m achine
Work Regime of the Turing Machine

  • Control unit is the processor, moving over the tape and performing write/read operations

  • Control unit's action depends on the symbol read from the tape and state of the control unit

  • Instruction of the Turing machine:

    (S0, qi, Sz, qj, L/P)

Operational part of the instruction

Identification part of the instruction

Von neumann architecture 1945
von Neumann Architecture (1945)

  • Universal uniprocessor architecture, the base for the modern computers

  • First practical realization: IAS computer (1952)

  • Functional structure:

    • Central Processing Unit (CPU) consisting of the Arithmetical-Logical Unit (ALU) and Control Unit (CU)

    • Main memory used to store data and instructions

    • Input/output modules

Organization of the von neumann m achine
Organization of the von Neumann Machine


System bus

Computational part of the CPU

I/O devices




Internal bus

Control part of the CPU

main memory